Coastal Adaptation Resources Database
A Nation Under Siege: Sea Level Rise at Our Doorstep (USA) - Mazria, E. and Kershner, K.
This coastal impact study was prepared by The 2030 Research Center, whose mission is to offer solutions to the building sector for mitigating climate change. This study begins with an assessment of the impacts of sea level rise on the US coast. By employing GIS mapping it demonstrates the effects of certain sea level rises on 30 existing urban centres. Overlays of 1-2 metres applied to US coastal cities indicate high risks of inundation. The report makes a compelling argument for urgent climate change mitigation. (1324)
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‘Helping Australia Adapt to a Changing Climate’ Video - CSIRO
This short video introduces the main issues facing Australia in adapting to climate change and the research activities of CSIRO’s Climate Adaptation National Research Flagship. (1077)
Adapting to Climate Change - Local Government Association of Queensland Inc. (LGAQ)
This 2007 Guide to adapting to climate change outlines a simple and logical four step process for assessing the risks climate change presents to local government assets and activities. The Guide also considers strategies for adaptation, noting that most climate change impacts can be dealt with as part of existing council planning and operational processes. This Guide was produced by the Local Government Association of Queensland. (1155)
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Adapting to Climate Change - Lessons for London (UK) - London Climate Change Partnership
In early 2006, the London Climate Change Partnership commissioned the consultants acclimatise, to review how other major international cities are managing climate risks. The aim of this review was to: provide the London Climate Change Partnership with international case studies for climate change adaptation; and inform the formation of climate adaptation planning policies for London, especially the Further Alterations to the London Plan. Some major international cities are beginning to prepare for climate change, and some are dealing with climatic conditions today that London will experience in the coming decades. The London Climate Change Partnership wants to ensure that London can learn from good practice in these cities on how to cope with climate risks. The review examined 18 cities, to understand how they are addressing the following climate risks, which are expected to intensify in London over the coming decades due to climate change: flooding, limited water resources, high temperatures. The primary audiences for this report are London’s policy-makers and decision-makers, including the members of the London Climate Change Partnership, the Mayor of London, the Greater London Authority (GLA), government departments, the London Boroughs, developers, utilities, and their regulators. It is also relevant to similar organisations in other cities. (1333)
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Adapting to Climate Change in Australia - An Australian Government Position Paper - Australian Government
This paper sets out the Australian Government’s vision and strategy for adapting to the impacts of climate change. The paper emphasises that uncertainty is not a reason for delay and that adaptation is a shared responsibility requiring a coordinated effort. (1236)
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Adapting to our changing climate - The Western Australian Government Department of Environment and Conservation
This statement focuses on climate change responses appropriate for Western Australia and outlines key policies the State Government will adopt to tackle this important issue. (1084)
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Adapting to Rising Tides (USA) - San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission
The San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission (BCDC) in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s Coastal Services Center, has undertaken the Adapting to Rising Tides (ART) Project to assist communities in the Bay Area prepare for sea level rise. The ART Project has engaged local, regional, state, and federal agencies and organisations, as well as non-profit and private associations. The project aims to address: how the impacts of rising seas will affect communities, infrastructure, ecosystems and the economy; and, developing local and regional strategies to manage these risks. The project has involved an assessment of both vulnerability and risk as a foundation for developing strategies to improve the region’s resilience to climate change impacts. (1423)
Addressing Social Vulnerability and Equity in Climate Change Adaptation Planning: Adapting to Rising Tides White Paper (USA) - Nutters, H.
Communities that experience social inequalities are more likely vulnerable harm from hazards such as coastal flooding. This white paper highlights the links between equity and planning for sea level rise and storm events and is designed to inform the Adapting to Rising Tides project (ART) being led by the San Francisco Bay Conservation and Development Commission. (1424)
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Adelaide's Living Beaches: A Strategy for 2005-2025 - Department for Environment and Heritage (South Australia)
Adelaide's Living Beaches: A Strategy for 2005-2025 focuses on the issues around protecting Adelaide's beaches, primarily through beach replenishment. It recognises that SLR, along with a number of other factors, require the development of coast protection measures that are more economically sustainable. In the long term, the strategy is expected to reduce the cost of managing Adelaide's coastline by about 20%. (1304)
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An Assessment of the Need to Adapt Buildings to the Unavoidable Consequences of Climate Change - Branz Limited
This report examines the potential implications of climate change for Australia’s building stock and building practices. The report briefly addresses the risks posed by coastal flooding and options for adapting buildings to these risks. (1052)
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An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century (USA) - U.S. Government Commission on Ocean Policy
An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century contains the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy findings and recommendations for a new, coordinated and comprehensive national ocean policy to the President and Congress. The final report contains 212 recommendations addressing all aspects of ocean and coastal policy. A number of recommendations are made in relation to the importance of an ecosystem-based management approach, inappropriate development, including on barrier islands and hazard mitigation planning, all of which are relevant to climate change adaptation. The report covers all aspects of coastal management including biodiversity, contamination, recreation, shipping, defence, climate, resource extraction, renewable energy and building management. It allows a better understanding of the flow-on impacts between uses and how they impact on coastal stability and the ecosystem. (1326)
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Appraisal of Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management: A Defra Policy Statement 2009 (UK) - UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
This Policy Statement sets out the principles that should guide decision making on the sustainable management of flood and coastal erosion risk in England. The operating authorities in England (the Environment Agency, local authorities, and internal drainage boards) are required to follow these principles when developing a case for investing taxpayers’ money in flood and erosion risk management projects. The Policy Statement also sets out the risk-based context within which appraisal should take place. This Statement sets out why appraisal is necessary, and the principles and policies that should guide this work. In particular it emphasises the need to ensure that appraisals for all activity (whether strategic level plans or individual projects): Give more consideration to ‘risk management’ and ‘adaptation’, as opposed to only ‘protection’ and ‘defence’; Are undertaken consistently, transparently, with value for money in mind and in a way that complies with the Treasury guidance on appraisal and evaluation in central Government (The Green Book); Help achieve better social and environmental outcomes as part of sustainable development, both by considering a broader range of issues and by using a broader range of analysis techniques; Adopt a risk-based approach, whilst considering impacts within the whole of a catchment or shoreline process area. (1343)
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Assessing and mapping Australia’s coastal vulnerability to climate change: Expert technical workshop - Australian Greenhouse Office and Department of the Environment and Heritage
This document is a record of the outcomes of an Expert Technical Workshop held in December 2005 designed to appraise the knowledge and methodologies required to assess Australia’s coastal vulnerability to climate change impacts. Information is provided on: coastal vulnerability assessment tools; biophysical models; climate and oceanographic drivers; risk assessment in the coastal zone; information systems, applications and user needs; and socio-economic integration. (1056)
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Australasian Mayors Council for Climate Protection - Australasian Mayors Council for Climate Protection
The Climate Mayors initiative aims to build the capacity of local councils to mitigate and adapt to climate change. The ‘climate mayors’ website is accessible to councils for regular up dates on current and future climate change actions, to seek responses from the network of peers on their experiences and to respond to specific queries and questions. The website informs the wider community including other levels of government on the work of local councils. (1165)
Australia’s Coasts and Climate Change - Australian Government - Department of Industry, Innovation, Climate Change, Science, Research and Tertiary Education
This webpage provides links to coastal adaptation policies, programs and projects delivered by the Department of Climate Change. (1002)
Australia’s Marine Biodiversity and Resources in a Changing Climate: A Review of Impacts and Adaptation 2009-2012 - Holbrook, N. J. and Johnson, J.
This document provides a critical review and synthesis of the published literature since December 2008 relevant to climate change adaptation for Australia’s marine biodiversity and resources, and identifies relevant funded projects and some key existing knowledge gaps. The literature review is structured in a manner that reports against the research questions identified in Appendix 2 of the National Climate Change Adaptation Research Plan for Marine Biodiversity and Resources (NCCARF, 2010; hereafter referred to as M-NARP2010) as possible priorities over the subsequent 5–7 years from 2010–2016. Based largely on the published literature since December 2008 and projects underway, we identify some key knowledge gaps that remain, and identify another question area that might be usefully added to the ‘cross-cutting issues’ theme – consideration of estuaries – not explicitly included in the original M-NARP2010. This document will be used to inform a review of M-NARP2010 in early 2012. (1356)
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Australian Flood Studies Database Search - Geoscience Australia
The flood database was developed in 2003-2004 and made available online by Geoscience in 2006. The database provides metadata on Australian flood studies and information on flood risk. The database is designed as an information management tool for all level of government. (1417)
Australian Government Response to the House of Representatives Report - ‘Managing Our Coastal Zone in a Changing Climate’ - Australian Government
The Australian Government Response addresses each of the 47 recommendations made in the House of Representatives Report - ‘Managing Our Coastal Zone in a Changing Climate’. (1235)
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Australian/New Zealand Standard ISO 31000:2009, Risk management - Principles and guidelines - SAI Global
The Australian and New Zealand Standard for Risk Management provides a comprehensive guide for identifying, analysing, evaluating, treating and monitoring risk. The Standard is used widely by the public and private sectors to guide risk management and is recommended by the Australian Government. (1039)
Bali Action Plan - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
In 2007, Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted the Bali Action Plan as a road map for moving toward a new binding post-2012 climate change agreement. The Bali Action Plan identifies adaptation as one of the fundamental building blocks required to strengthen a future response to climate change. (1032)
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Barriers to Effective Climate Change Adaptation - Australian Government Productivity Commission
The Productivity Commission assessed regulatory and policy barriers to effective adaptation to climate change, and identified high-priority reforms to address these barriers. In doing so, the Commission examined the benefits and costs of a range of policy options (including market and non-market mechanisms, and the option of maintaining the status quo), and took into account the relevant policies of all levels of government and the work on climate change adaptation undertaken through the Council of Australian Governments (COAG). (1350)
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Beach Erosion - OzCoasts: Australian Online Coastal Information
Beach erosion can be linked to rising sea levels and storm surges associated with climate change. OzCoasts provides information about beach erosion including the human activities that accelerate it. (1202)
Benefit or Burden? How to Leave a Positive Legacy in Local Climate Change Adaptation - City of Mandurah - Adaptive Futures
Across Australia organisations including local governments, communities, businesses and industries are already working to adapt to our climate now, and in the future. NCCARF seeks to highlight the actions and achievements of organisations that are working to adapt their sector, and to explore the challenges they face and efforts to manage them. The City of Mandurah is now in its fifth year in an adaptive journey to help the community better understand and manage the potential impacts of climate change on its coastline and estuary. (1363)
Byron Climate Change Strategic Planning Policy - Byron Shire Council
The Byron Shire Council Climate Change Strategic Planning Policy sets out Council’s accepted climate change parameters to inform the decision making process for strategic, infrastructure and operational planning. It seeks to mitigate impacts associated with climate change on future generations through commitment to the precautionary principle. It specifics the review of climate change parameters as further information becomes available from leading government organisations. A 100 year planning period will be used for any strategic, infrastructure and operational planning document or designs that may be affected by climate change. (1344)
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Cancun Adaptation Framework - UNFCCC
The Cancun Adaptation Framework was adopted by Parties as part of the Cancun Agreements at the 2010 Climate Change Conference with the objective of enhancing action on adaptation. In the Agreements, Parties affirmed that adaptation must be addressed with the same level of priority as mitigation. (1239)
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Caring for Our Country Community Action Grants - Australian Government Caring for our Country NRM
The Australian Government is providing over $4.9 million in Community Action Grant funding to help community groups sustainably manage and protect a diverse range of environments and natural resources. Coastal conservation and rehabilitation projects are a Government NRM priority. A number of coastal and marine projects have received funding around the country. (1432)
Caring for our Country Funding - Australian Government Caring for our Country NRM
Caring for our Country is an ongoing initiative that will continue to offer multi-year funding to provide certainty for stakeholders. The Australian Government will commit more than $2 billion to continue Caring for our Country from 2013-14 to 2017-18. Some grants are applicable to coasts. (1100)
Case Studies of Climate Change Adaptation Tools and Application Processes Used by Local Government Practitioners - Booth, P.
This report provides case studies of climate change adaptation tools and processes used by councils across Australia. Eighteen case studies were gathered from councils and regional organisations across the States and Territories. In addition, statewide synopses of adaptation tools and processes commonly used in Victoria, Western Australia, South Australia and NSW were provided. This suite of case studies and synopses was thematically analysed to build a nationwide understanding of corporate, business case, strategic response planning, technical, community and stakeholder, and context?specific issues and concerns. This is the first of three ‘demand‐driven’ research and evaluation priorities that the Australian Climate Change Adaptation Research Network for Settlements and Infrastructure (ACCARNSI) has undertaken since 2010. (1396)
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Circular Head Region Coastal Foreshore Habitats: Sea Level Rise Vulnerability Assessment (Tasmania) - Mount, R.E., Prahalad, V., Sharples, C., Tilden, J., Morrisson, B, Lacey, M., Ellison, J., Helman, M. and Newton, J.
This project based in Circular Head Tasmania is designed to focus on the benefits that flow to people from the natural environments (or habitats) in the area and then broadly assess whether or not they are vulnerable to sea level rise impacts. The primary audience for this report are those who are planning for adaptation to climate change impacts including dairy industry, aquaculture, tourism, health professionals, local councils and conservations groups. (1386)
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City of Greater Geraldton Climate Change Policy Statement (WA) - City of Greater Geraldton
The City of Greater Geraldton Climate Change Policy Statement is concerned with greenhouse gas mitigation and adaptation to the impacts of climate change. The policy covers all Council operations. The policy recognises the need to address climate change in a strategic planning framework. The City of Greater Geraldton is committed to planning, investment and infrastructure decisions to enable the community to successfully adapt to the impacts of climate change, reduce its risks and vulnerabilities to these impacts and take advantage of any opportunities. The City of Greater Geraldton (CGG) commits to: Supporting the establishment of institutions and regulations that ensure effective, integrated cross-sectoral action by stakeholders for climate change management; Contributing to the common goal of ensuring that Western Australia’s communities and natural ecosystems have the resources necessary to adapt to climate change impacts; Developing individuals and communities understanding about the impacts of climate change and develop strategies to help adapt to these; Ensure that all current regulation and policies take into consideration the likely impact of climate change on current and future human settlements, natural resources and ecosystems and facilitate adaptation to these. (1404)
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City of Keene Climate Adaptation Plan - City of Keene
The City of Keene is one of the first cities in the U.S. to actively and comprehensively address the potential impacts associated with climate change. The City of Keene’s 2007 climate action plan, Adapting to Climate Change: Planning a Climate Resilient Community, realises the third milestone in ICLEI’s Five Milestones CRC Process. The City of Keene, representing a small population of around 25,000, has produced a detailed action plan that sets out climate vulnerabilities and priority areas for action in order to increase community climate resiliency. The action plan was developed by a committee including local government officials and staff, community members, and university and health field representatives. In developing the action plan, a democratic process was employed to determine the top five climate vulnerabilities within the natural, built and social environments and to formulate adaptation goals to increase community climate resiliency to these vulnerabilities. The committee identified measurable targets to achieve each adaptation goal. The Climate Adaptation Action Plan will aid Keene’s progress in enhancing its resiliency to the impacts associated with climate change as well as with its overall climate change planning efforts. (1176)
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City of London Adaptation Strategy - City of London Corporation
The City of London is the first council in the UK to develop a comprehensive strategy for adapting to the impacts of climate change. Adopted in 2007, 'Rising to the Challenge - The City of London Corporations Climate Adaptation Strategy' was developed using standard risk management tools in consultation with key stakeholders and service providers. The strategy devolves responsibility for implementation to individual departments and puts a monitoring system in place for delivery. The document assesses the major climate change risks facing the City and addresses these risks under the following headings; flood risks, water resources, heat risks and pollution, and ground conditions. The strategy recommends a range of ‘no regrets’, ‘low regrets’, ‘win-win’ and ‘flexible’ options for adaptation. (1173)
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Climate Change (State Action) Act (2008) (Tasmania) - Tasmanian Government
The Climate Change (State Action) Act 2008 (Tas) (CCSA Act) is administered by the Tasmanian Climate Change Office which is part of the Department of Premier and Cabinet. 2.2 Requirements of CCSA Act The CCSA Act: (a) sets a greenhouse gas emissions reduction target; (b) creates the Tasmanian Climate Action Council (TCAC); and (c) provides the power to make climate change regulations. Beyond one of its stated objects being to 'identify, promote and support measures to help Tasmania deal with and adapt to the expected consequences of climate change', the CCSA Act does not deal with coastal climate change risks or adaptation measures. The TCAC is established to provide high-level, independent advice to the Minister on climate change issues affecting Tasmania. The Tasmanian Climate Change Council Office was established to lead the Government's efforts to respond to the challenges of climate change. (1313)
Climate Change Adaptation Actions for Local Government - Australian Greenhouse Office
This report provides an overview of climate change aspects and impacts as they affect the functions of Australia’s local governments. It further identifies climate change adaptation actions that can be implemented by local governments in response to impacts that provide a net economic, social or environmental benefit no matter what level of climate change occurs. Coastal climate change impacts are addressed. (1036)
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Climate Change Adaptation Program - Australian Government - Department of Industry, Innovation, Climate Change, Science, Research and Tertiary Education
The Australian Government Climate Change Adaptation Program funds projects and vulnerability assessments to improve knowledge of climate change impacts and to improve the capacity of decision makers to respond to areas of national vulnerability. (1010)
Climate Change Adaptation Strategy – London (UK) - Greater London Authority
Under the Greater London Authority Act, the Lord mayor is charged with preparing a Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. This report was released as part of the community consultation process for developing that strategy. It uses a risk based assessment of the threats of flooding, drought and overheating posed to London from climate change, subsequently assessing the impacts of these three on the city’s health, environment, economy and infrastructure. (1336)
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Climate Change and Community Relocation in the Arctic and SIDS - Many Strong Voices
This project will research and analyse the human rights implications of the relocation of communities vulnerable to climate change in the Arctic and Small Island Developing States (SIDS). The project will develop principles and guidelines to serve as a model for community-based relocation of islands, low-lying and coastal communities. This Many Strong Voices project is a collaboration between UNEP/GRID-Arendal, the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research - Oslo (CICERO), the Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL), the Alaska Immigration Justice Project, and the communities of Newtok and the Carteret Islands. (1421)
Climate Change and the Implications for Local Government in Queensland: a Risk Assessment Report - Miles, B. Marshall, C., Kinnear, S. and Greer, L.
This report provides an informative discussion of the issues, challenges and risks climate change presents to local government and outlines the support services local governments will require to address climate change. The report was produced for the Queensland Local Government Association in April 2008. (1156)
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Climate Change and Variability - Australian Government - Bureau of Meteorology
The Bureau of Meteorology provides observations and information about Australia’s changing climate including trend maps and time series graphs. (1005)
Climate Change Grants - Australian Government Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts
The Australian Government Department of Environment offers grants for various aspects of climate change action. (1095)
Climate Change Impacts & Risk Management - A Guide for Business and Government - Australian Greenhouse Office
This Guide sets out a framework for assessing and prioritising the risks related to climate change impacts and a process for the effective management of risks. The Australian Government suggests local governments align their climate change risk assessments with this framework. This initial assessment level of risk appraisal can be undertaken by people with a sound professional knowledge of the relevant organisation, together with a general understanding of the likely impacts of climate change. (1037)
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Climate change impacts in Australia - Australian Government Department of the Environment
This web page provides access to climate change impacts for each Australian state and territory including impacts to the coastal zone. (1434)
Climate Change Impacts on Clarence Coastal Areas - Final Report - SGS Economics and Planning Pty. Ltd. and Water Research Laboratory, UNSW
Tasmania’s City of Clarence coastal areas are subject to flood, storm surges and erosion, which are expected to increase with climate change. The purpose of the Climate Change Impacts study is to provide an integrated assessment of climate change risks in coastal areas. This report brings together the findings of the technical assessment and socio-economic assessment published in separate, more detailed reports. The project was undertaken by the Clarence Council in conjunction with the State Emergency Services and Australian Government Department of Climate Change. (1178)
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Climate Change in Australia - CSIRO
The Climate Change in Australia website provides climate change projections based on research and modelling by CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology. The website also provides information and resources about climate change in Australia and climate change science. (1003)
Climate Change in Australia Technical Report - CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology
The Climate Change in Australia Technical Report provides information about the likely magnitude of climate change in Australia and the impacts that will occur. Chapter 5 discusses regional coastal and marine climate change projections including sea level rise. (1040)
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Climate Change Law for Planners, Developers, Local Government and Greenies: A Quick Stock Take and Some Ideas for the Future - England, P.
This research paper provides an overview of Australian local and state government and judicial efforts to address climate change and speculates on some policy areas awaiting further development. England outlines a principled framework through which current and future efforts with respect to climate change are organised. The framework offers a useful guide to future development of climate change law and policy in Australia. (1195)
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Climate Change on Google Earth - UK Government
Agencies across UK Government have joined together to highlight the issues of climate change via Google Earth. To access the the four degree map as a layer on Google Earth you need Google Earth. You can then download the Met Office global temperatures layer. (1083)
Climate Change Planning for Byron Shire Council - Byron Shire Council
In November 2008, the Byron Shire Council approved plans to take into account climate change scenarios in Council frameworks for risk management, public health, land use planning, development assessment, and environmental protection. All planning reports to Council must identify climate change assessment and impacts. Council have now prepared a Climate Change Adaptation Plan and a Climate Change Strategic Planning Policy that include 100 year climate change flood planning scenarios. (1186)
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Climate Change Readiness (Coastal Planning and Protection) Bill 2012 (DRAFT) - Hon Lyn MacLaren MLC
A draft Bill for an Act about planning and management in the coastal zone. The Bill provides for a Western Australian Coastal Policy, local coastal adaptation plans, protection from liability and stakeholder consultation. (1224)
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Climate Change Risk Management and Adaptation Action Plan for the Southern Metropolitan Councils (Western Australia) - GHD Pty Ltd
The Southern Metropolitan Regional Council (SMRC) is a statutory, Local Government authority representing local councils located in the southern part of metropolitan Perth, Western Australia. The SMRC is comprised of five local governments in Perth’s south west metropolitan region: Cockburn, East Fremantle, Fremantle, Kwinana and Melville and spans 340 square kilometres, encompasses 258,687 residents. 
The five member local governments work together through the SMRC to develop environmentally sustainable waste management solutions and climate change abatement measures. This report has been partly funded by the Australian Government Department of Climate Change under its Local Adaptation Pathways Program. It provides a detailed summary of the context setting and risk assessment, as well as the results of the adaptation option identification phase. The risk assessment and adaptation were conducted using the prescribed methodology for LAPP funding approval as defined in Climate Change Impacts and Risk Management: A Guide for Business and Government (AGO, 2006), which is aligned with the Australian Standard for Risk Management (AS/NZS 4360:2004). The risk framework utilised was based on the consequence and likelihood criteria defined in the AGO documentation. (1387)
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Climate Change Risks to Australia - Australian Government Department of Climate Change
The first pass national assessment of Climate Change Risks to Australia’s Coast is one of the key actions identified in the National Climate Change Adaptation Framework endorsed by the Council of Australian Governments (COAG) in 2007. The Framework recognised that national assessments are required in key sectors and regions to support informed decisions on adaptation action by policy-makers, business and industry, resource managers and the community. This report presents the findings of a first pass national assessment of climate change risks for the whole of Australia’s coasts. The assessment focuses on the risks to settlements and infrastructure, ecosystems and industries in the coastal zone. (1238)
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Climate Change Risks to Coastal Buildings and Infrastructure - A Supplement to the First Pass National Assessment - Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency
This booklet supplements the analysis presented in the Climate Change Risks to Australia’s Coasts report. It provides additional data on the exposure of commercial buildings, light industrial buildings and transport systems in Australia’s coastal areas. (1240)
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Climate Change Scenarios for Initial Assessment of Risk in Accordance with Risk Management Guidance - Hennessey, K., Macadam, I. and Whetton, P., CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research
Regional climate change scenarios, prepared by CSIRO, for use in the initial assessment of risks as recommended by Climate Change Impacts & Risk Management - A Guide for Business and Government. (1038)
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Climate Change Strategy 2009-2014 - Gold Coast City Council
This strategy looks at the risks of climate change and its likely consequences for Council and the community both in the short and long term.  This strategy builds on Council’s existing climate change related activities; however, its main focus is to provide a well-defined direction for responding to climate change risks and challenges and to develop resilience to future impacts. (1384)
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Climate Change: Risk and Vulnerability - Promoting an Efficient Adaptation Response in Australia - The Allen Consulting Group for the Australian Greenhouse Office and Department of the Environment and Heritage
This report examines Australia’s vulnerability to climate change impacts over the next 30 to 50 years. A risk management approach is taken in this report, whereby sectors and regions of highest priority for adaptation planning are identified including vulnerable coastal areas such as coastal mangrove systems . The report argues that effective adaptation requires the integration of climate risk into all aspects of strategic planning and risk assessment. Published in March 2005, this report was written by Allen Consulting Group for the former Australian Greenhouse Office and Department of the Environment and Heritage. (1150)
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Climate Change: Science and Solutions for Australia - Ceugh, H., Stafford Smith, M., Battaglia, M. and Graham, P.
This publication provides the latest scientific knowledge on a series of climate change topics relevant to Australia and the world. It draws on peer-reviewed literature contributed to by thousands of researchers. Available as a free eBook. This book is an accessible guide to underpin decisions that need to be made in business, in government, and in general to respond to the challenges of climate change. It is an important resource for: • business community leaders • federal, state and local government members • researchers and academics involved or interested in climate change science, adaptation and mitigation • educators and media • general public with an interest in climate change science. Chapter 6 contains information of coastal flooding. (1354)
Climate Change: What Are Local Governments Liable for? - England, P.
This research paper by Philipa England examines some of the liability issues local governments may face in relation to climate change. England notes that of all the anticipated climate change impacts, sea level rise, flooding and extreme weather events may affect local governments most directly (or which are most likely to lead to individual law suits against them). (1157)
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Climate Council -
The Climate Council is a non-profit, independent, apolitical organisation which aims to provide clear, independent advice to the Australian community.  The Councillors are: Tim Flannery, Gerry Hueston, Lesley Hughes, Will Steffen and Veena Sahajwalla. (1349)
Climate Education - Australian Bureau of Meteorology
This site provides links to a range of Bureau of Meteorology education materials on the greenhouse effect and long-term climate, temperature and rainfall variability in Australia. (1081)
Climate Science - Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre
ACE is a multidisciplinary partnership of 21 national and international organisations. We provide science, knowledge and understanding to help Australia meet the challenges of climate change. We do this by understanding the crucial role played by Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in global climate, and the impacts of climate change on Australia and the world. We inform governments, the community and scientists about climate change to guide Australia’s future. (1348)
Climate Science for Australia - Geoscience Australia and the Cooperative Research Centre for Spatial Information
Digital elevation data which describes Australia's landforms and seabed is crucial for addressing issues relating to the impacts of climate change, disaster management, water security, environmental management, urban planning and infrastructure design. The National Elevation Data Framework (NEDF) vision is to ensure that decision makers, investors and the community have access to the best available elevation data to address the needs of today and the decades ahead. The NEDF-Portal has been developed to serve as a 'Virtual Data Repository' and on-line portal that allows easy discovery and access to existing elevation data holdings and metadata. (1347)
Climate Variability and Change in South-West Western Australia - Indian Ocean Climate Initiative
This Indian Ocean Climate Initiative report, published in 2002, is based on five years of research into climatic variability in the south west of Western Australia. The report offers a list of key findings and valuable information on how climate has changed, causes of change and future climate projections. The report was written specifically for decision-makers in climate-affected industries and natural resource management. (1064)
CLIMsystems Climate Change and Adaptation Software - CLIMsystems
CLIMsystems provide climate change risk and adaptation assessment tools and services. The products are Fourth Assessment-compatible and include spatial scenario generators for temperature, precipitation, sea level rise, solar radiation and wind. CLIMsystem models can be linked with globally significant sectoral models. Vulnerability and resilience can both be assessed through the application of CLIMsystems tools and methods. (1207)
CLIVAR Working Group on Ocean Model Development - National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Taihoro Nukurangi, New Zealand
CLIVAR is an international research programme dealing with climate variability and predictability on time-sales from months to centuries. The Ocean Model Development working group produces scientific models on sea level rise and ocean/ice interactions.  (1082)
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Coastal Adaptation Decision Pathways Projects - Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency
The Australian Government invested $4.5 million to demonstrate effective approaches to adaptation in the coastal zone. Thirteen projects received funding to develop leading practice approaches to better manage future climate risk to coastal assets and communities.  The Australian Government partnered with decision-makers in the coastal zone to explore and demonstrate decision or investment pathways that can build resilience to the increasing risks from future climate impacts. Projects focused on the decision pathways that enable the transformation of business operations to prepare for longer-term climate change projections. The objectives of Coastal Adaptation Decision Pathways projects were to: demonstrate the utility of flexible pathways that incorporate future climate risk and adaptation actions into decision-making establish the key partnerships that will position communities in the longer term to drive the reform required to manage climate change risks provide leadership in new approaches to cost-effectively manage legacy asset risk, and enhance the adaptive capacity of governments, communities and infrastructure and service providers through engagement in developing planning for future options. (1351)
Coastal Climate Change Risk - Legal and Policy Responses in Australia Report - Gibbs, M. and Hill, T. (Blake Dawson)
This report was commissioned by the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency to inform the Coasts and Climate Change Council of the current extent and status of state and territory laws and policies addressing coastal climate change risks, particularly as they relate to settlements in Australia. This report provides: • a mapping and strategic analysis of current legal and policy mechanisms in place across the states and Northern Territory to address CCC risks; • a snapshot review of risk protection standards that have been employed across the jurisdictions for different natural hazards; • a succinct mapping of current CCC risk management responsibilities; and • a summary of key CCC-related legislation and policy for each state and the Northern Territory. (1253)
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Coastal Councils Climate Change Adaptation Plan (NSW) - Kinrade, P. and Arold, N. (Marsden Jacob Associates)
This report makes recommendations for action in response to identified regionally common risks arising from climate change for coastal councils in the Hunter, Central and Lower North Coast region of NSW. The report identifies regional opportunities for collaboration across these councils for responding to climate change. (1401)
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Coastal Ecosystems Responses to Climate Change - a Synthesis Report - Hadwen, WL, Capon, SJ, Poloczanska, E, Rochester, W, Martin, T, Bay, L, Pratchett, M, Green, J, Cook, B, Berry, A, Lolonde, A, Fahey, S
The Coastal Ecosystems Responses to Climate Change Synthesis (CERCCS) Project represents a major Synthesis and Integration project commissioned by the National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) and undertaken by staff at Griffith University, the University of the Sunshine Coast, James Cook University and CSIRO. The focus of the project was on conducting a broad-scale assessment of climate change threats to coastal ecosystems of Australia and identifying potential adaptation pathways to inform decision-making and future research. (1357)
Coastal Habitat Vulnerability Assessment - Cradle Coast (Tasmania) - Blue Wren Group, University of Tasmania
Coastal Habitat Vulnerability Assessment An investigation has been conducted into the implications of climate change induced sea level rise - including effects of tiday and wave processes - on the shallow coastal and estuarine habitats of Robbins Passage / Boullanger Bay. The project provides a basis for exploring future scenarios for the environmental, economic and social values related to the area, and ultimately for their improved management. The project was delivered by the University of Tasmania and the Blue Wren Group, supported by Cradle Coast Natural Resource Management (NRM) through funding from the Australian Government’s Caring for our Country. (1385)
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Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A Guidance Manual for Local Government in New Zealand - New Zealand Government Ministry for the Environment
This New Zealand Government guide supports local government policy, planning, consents, building and engineering staff in dealing with some of the challenges climate change presents to coastal communities. The guide aims to strengthen the integration of coastal hazards and climate change considerations into land-use planning and during resource consent decision-making by providing best practice information and guidance. The guide promotes the development of long-term adaptive capacity for managing coastal hazard risk through the adoption of adaptive management and no-regrets response options. (1196)
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Coastal Planning & Management Manual: A Community Guide for Protecting and Conserving the Western Australian Coast - Western Australian Planning Commission
The Coastal Planning & Management Manual: A Community Guide for Protecting and Conserving the Western Australian Coast provides detailed guidance to community groups and local government on coastal planning and management, including the types of coastal strategies and plans that can be developed and coastal planning and management principles such as sustainable management. (1060)
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Coastal Planning and Coordination Council - Western Australian Department of Planning
The Coastal Planning and Coordination Council provides high-level strategic and integrated advice on the sustainable and coordinated planning and management of the Western Australian coast. (1231)
Coastal Protection Board Strategic Plan 2009-2014 - South Australian Government Coastal Protection Board
The South Australian Coastal Protection Board Strategic Plan has three priorities that relate to climate change adaptation: first, adaptation of existing development to coastal hazards and the impacts of climate change; second, ensure new development is not at risk from current and future hazards; third, plan for resilience in coastal ecosystems to adapt to the impacts of climate change. (1256)
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Coastal Protection Policy for Western Australia: A Department of Transport Operational Policy - WA Government Department of Transport
The Department of Transport's Coastal Protection Policy for Western Australia sets out the roles and responsibilities of the State Government in providing engineering works and associated services to protect areas of the coast from erosion by ocean forces. The policy applies to the coastline immediately adjacent to the ocean but excludes estuarine and riverfront waters. The policy recognises the need for the State Government to be involved in coastal management through the functions of its agencies in the absence of specific coastal management legislation. The Policy provides that the Department of Transport will, subject to conditions, provide funding, technical advice and assistance for emergency coastal protection works, permanent coastal protection works and the maintenance of coastal protection structures. The policy provides that generally, local governments will be the owners of coastal protection structures and responsible for their maintenance. The policy also provides for liability where a party's development interrupts the supply of littoral sand, the management and collection of data and the provision of technical advice for coastal land use planning. (1299)
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Coastal Protection Regulation 2011 - NSW Government
The NSW Coastal Protection Regulation supports the amendments made to the NSW Coastal Protection Act. (1265)
Coastal Research Webportal - CSIRO
The CSIRO Coastal Research Webportal is a free resource developed for local councils and researchers to access research projects, related publications and links to a range of available data and metadata. (1226)
Coastal Risk Management Guide: Incorporating Sea Level Rise Benchmarks in Coastal Risk Assessments - Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW
The Coastal Risk Management Guide assists local government, developers and consultants to incorporate sea level rise benchmarks adopted by the NSW Government into coastal hazard assessments and for development purposes. The Benchmarks are an increase above 1990 mean sea levels of 40 cm by 2050 and 90 cm by 2100. (1267)
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Coastal Zone Management Policy for Western Australia - Western Australian Planning Commission
The Coastal Zone Management Policy for Western Australia 2001 (CZM Policy) is listed as a 'draft policy' and is applied by local consent authorities. It has no formal legal status and is used for guidance. The CZM is intended to be the basis for the development of government strategies and management plans for the State's coast and improve co-ordination across Government. The CZM Policy recognises the importance of factoring natural processes into the assessment of coastal development. These natural processes include major climatic events, erosion and accretion and SLR. The CZM Policy prescribes several changes, the most important being the establishment of the Coastal Zone Council to develop Coastal Zone strategy in consultation with key stakeholders. (1232)
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Coastcare Victoria Community Grants Program 2013 - State Government of Victoria Department of Environment and Primary Industries
Victorian communities and volunteers play a key role in the ongoing protection and conservation of our coastal landscapes. To support these community groups and their activities, funding is provided through the Coastcare Victoria Community Grants Program. Grants of up to $20,000 will be provided to successful applicants to take practical local action to protect and enhance the coastal and nearshore marine environment. (1098)
Coasts and Climate Change Council: Summary of Council Recommendations to the Australian Government - Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency
The Council believes early action is needed to manage the climate adaptation challenge. We have engaged with a range of stakeholders over two years and commissioned studies to inform our advice. The areas for action summarised below seek to address current barriers to adaptation and help build capacity to manage coastal climate risks more effectively. The Council has engaged with a range of stakeholders over the last year. We have talked to planners, the banking and insurance sectors, valuers and the property industry, local government, and legal and engineering experts. We have also benefited from two legal studies that assessed current regulatory responses to coastal climate change risk and the issue of local government liability. This advice seeks to address key barriers and build capacity to manage climate risks more effectively. Recommendations are made in five areas that would benefit from action now: 1. National coastal climate risk standard to guide planning and investment 2. Improving decision making through better science and information 3. Coastal policy and regulatory reform 4. On-ground adaptation – tackling hotspots of extreme risk, and 5. Integrating climate change into national agendas. (1328)
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Coastwest Grants - WA Government Department for Planning
Coastwest grants support projects designed to respond to the challenges facing Western Australian coasts such as climate change and population growth. Grants are provided to partnerships of community groups and coastal managers aimed at local coastal management activities such as. Funded projects should assist the implementation of existing coastal and marine rehabilitation, restoration and conservation. Grants of up to $150 000 are available; grants bewteen $20 000 - $50 000 are encouraged. (1118)
Community Relocation as an Option for Adaptation to the Effects of Climate Change and Climate Variability in Pacific Island Countries (Pacific Islands) - Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research
This project is a pilot study focusing on the social and policy implications of community relocation as an adaptation response to climate change in Pacific Island Countries. The project developed a four-fold classification of relocation based on distance and boundaries crossed. The boundaries include land tenure and international political borders. The costs and problems associated with relocation increase with distance and boundary crossing. (1422)
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Comprehensive Plans: City of Crisfield (Maryland, USA) - Jakubiak & Associates Inc.
Comprehensive plans are used in the US by local government for long-term planning of community development. Comprehensive plans typically sets out policy for land-use, transportation, utilities, housing and recreation. Some local governments are incorporating climate change adaptation into comprehensive plans. For example, Crisfield, Maryland, has adopted a comprehensive community plan that guides coastal and estuary development away from flood prone areas and restore natural function of the floodplain. (1270)
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Construction of Buildings in Flood Hazard Areas: Standard - Australian Building Codes Board
The Australian Government and State and Territory Governments directed the Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB) to develop a standard for the design and construction of certain new buildings in flood hazard areas (the Standard). The Standard specifies requirements for flood-resistant design and construction of buildings that are subject to the BCA requirements and that are located, in whole or in part, in flood hazard areas. The Standard aims to reduce the risk of death or injury of building occupants as a result of buildings subjected to certain flood events. (1439)
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CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship - CSIRO
The CSIRO National Climate Adaptation Flagship undertakes research and supplies information and expertise to support Australia's efforts to adapt to climate change. Coastal adaptation is one of four Flagship research themes. Flagship researchers are developing planning, design, infrastructure and management solutions. (1170)
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research - CSIRO
CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research (CMAR) undertakes research into marine, atmospheric and earth systems driven by issues affecting Australia and the world. CMAR houses Australia’s leading regional climate change modelling teams. (1004)
CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship - CSIRO
The Wealth from Oceans Flagship delivers science and tools to decision-makers that help shape Australia’s understanding of climate change and climate adaptation. The Flagship was initiated by CSIRO in 2003 to address national challenges where oceans play a central role. (1079)
Darwin Harbour Strategy 2010 (Northern Territory) - Darwin Harbour Advisory Committee
The Darwin Harbour Strategy is a comprehensive guide for the responsible stewardship and sustainable development of the Darwin Harbour region. The Strategy’s purpose is to provide policy and decision makers within government, industry, commerce and the community, with guidance for the integrated management of the Darwin Harbour region”. “The Strategy provides a shared vision for the region, as well as founding principles to underpin its stewardship. It contains goals and guidelines that outline the management approach needed to maintain the region’s residential, recreational, cultural, urban, economic, environmental and scenic values." (1316)
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Developing a National Coastal Adaptation Agenda: A Report on the National Climate Change Forum - Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency
This is the report of the National Climate Change Forum: Adaptation Priorities for Australia’s Coast, held in Adelaide, 18-19 February 2010. The Forum initiated dialogue with coastal decision-makers on the national coastal adaptation agenda. This report provides a summary of the dialogue that occurred in the Forum. (1237)
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Developing Flexible Adaptation Pathways for the Peron Naturaliste Coastal Region of Western Australia 2011 - Peron Naturaliste Partnership
The Peron Naturaliste Partnership is a cooperative regional approach to coastal adaptation action. Bunbury, Busselton, Capel, Dardanup, Harvey, Mandurah, Murray, Rockingham, Waroona are a collective group of Local Governments between Cape Peron and Cape Naturaliste in the southwest of Western Australia who recognise the potential vulnerability of this coastline due to climate change impacts. The key reason for undertaking this work is to ensure the Peron Naturaliste Coastal Region of Western Australia is adequately prepared to respond to the impacts and opportunities posed by climate change. (1391)
Dynamic Maps of Sea Level Rise - Alex Tingle
This website offers dynamic maps of possible sea level rise due to global warming. Users can control for sea level rise and and zoom in on regions. These maps have been primarily used by community groups for educational purposes. See for details of how Alex Tingle created the maps, their accuracy and the data employed. (1085)
Earth Day - Earth Day Network
Earth Day, celebrated on 22 April each year, aims to raise environmental awareness around the globe. Coordinated by the Earth Day Network, Earth day is celebrated by more than a billion people from all backgrounds, faiths and nationalities. (1091)
East Riding of Yorkshire Council Coastline Rollback Policy - East Riding of Yorkshire Council
East Riding of Yorkshire Council is implementing a coastal ‘rollback’ strategy to manage high rates of coastal erosion as part of its Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan. ‘The ‘Roll Back’ policy for houses and farmsteads threatened by coastal erosion was agreed in November 2005. In summary, the policy allows dwellings threatened by coastal erosion to obtain planning permission to be replaced and re-located further inland to an existing settlement. (1174)
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Emergency Management Act (2006) (Tasmania) - Tasmanian Government
The Tasmanian Emergency Management Act 2006 (EM Act) establishes the Tasmanian emergency management framework, which operates at State, regional and municipal levels. The EM Act is overseen by the Minister for Police and Emergency Management. The State emergency management activities are overseen by the State Emergency Management Committee (SEMC), which is chaired by the State Controller (Commissioner of Police) and supported by the Executive Officer (Director State Emergency Service). The EM Act provides the powers and responsibilities for public authorities during an 'emergency'. An 'emergency' is an event that endangers, destroys or threatens to endanger or destroy human life, property or the environment, or causes or threatens to cause injury or distress to persons, and requires a significant response from one or more of the statutory services. The EM Act requires the preparation of emergency management plans (EMPs) at municipal, regional and State levels. EMPs are reviewed at least every two years after approval and describe the current governance and coordination arrangements for prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Under the EM Act, the Premier may declare a state of emergency if they are satisfied that an emergency is occurring or has occurred in Tasmania, that circumstances require, or may require, the use of special emergency powers, and that the authorisation of emergency powers without a declaration of a state of emergency is insufficient, or may be insufficient, to manage the emergency. (1314)
Emergency Management Act 2005 (WA) - Western Australian Government
Emergency management in Western Australia is governed by the Emergency Management Act 2005 (WA). The Minister for Emergency Services has overall responsibility, and operates through the State Emergency Management Committee (SEMC). The SEMC has a number of functions including: the provision of direction, advice and support to public authorities, industry, commerce and the community in order to plan and prepare for an efficient emergency management capability for Western Australia; develop and coordinate risk management strategies to assess community vulnerability to emergencies; arrange for the preparation of State emergency management policies and plans; prepare an annual report on its activities; and monitor and review the EM Act and its regulations. The Minister may declare a state of emergency under the EM Act if the Minister has considered the advice of the State Emergency Coordinator, and is satisfied that an emergency has occurred, is occurring or is imminent and that extraordinary measures are required to prevent or minimise loss of life, prejudice to the safety, or harm to the health, of persons or animals, destruction of, or damage to, property or the environment. (1139)
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Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999 - Australian Government
The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act is the Australian Government’s principal piece of legislation for the protection of the environment and conservation of biodiversity. Part IV of this Act establishes the legislative framework for the environmental impact assessment process. (1131)
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Environmental Protection Act 1986 - Western Australian Government
The Environmental Protection Act 1986 (EP Act) provides for the protection, conservation and management of the environment, and for an Environmental Protection Authority. Part IV of the Act provides the legislative framework for the environmental impact assessment process. The EP Act is administered by the Western Australian Department of Environment and Conservation. (1140)
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Eyre Peninsula Coastal Action Plan and Conservation Priority Study - Caton, B., Detmar, S., Fotherington, D., Laurence, S., Quinn, J., Royal, M., Rubbo, N., Sandercock, R.
The Eyre Peninsula Coastal Action Plan is a detailed conservation study and action plan which covers 2,475 kilometres of coastline – nearly half the length of South Australia’s coast - from Two Hummocks point north of Whyalla to the eastern boundary of the Wahgunyah Conservation Park in the Far West. The study was undertaken by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources for the EP Natural Resources Management Board and funded by the Australian Government’s Caring for our Country initiative. It provides baseline information for the protection and management of the coast and outlines the actions required. The information can be used by local councils, community groups, and other agencies to prioritise coastal work aimed at protecting coastal conservation assets such as animals, heritage sites and coastal habitats. It can also be used to support applications for funding to undertake these works and serve as an educational tool about the coastal environments of Eyre Peninsula. The plan brings together data from a range of sources including local knowledge and expertise on natural assets, such as flora, fauna, heritage and landforms and threats to these assets, including invasive weeds, pest animals, and off-road vehicles in fragile areas. It also outlines region-wide and local actions that can be taken to tackle the threats. On-going climate change underpins many of the regional recommendations for action proposed here. Some ‘no regrets’ adaptations and necessary monitoring are proposed with the Objectives… x. To build ecosystem resilience to current pressures and as a precautionary adaptation to climate change. To begin to adjust now to climate change impacts on coastal habitats. xx. To avoid decisions now which compromise future adaptation to change, and avoid unnecessary expense.. (1322)
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Facing Up to Rising Sea-Levels: Retreat? Defend? Attack? (UK) - Building Futures and ICE
This publication is a joint project between the Institution of Civil Engineers and Building Futures, the Royal Institute of British Architects think tank. The project focuses on cities vulnerable to flooding. It takes a proactive approach to managing sea level rise. Three approaches are discussed: retreat, defend or attack. An attack response involves building out onto the water. (1406)
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FEMA Hazard Mitigation Plans (USA) - United States Federal Emergency Management Authority
US local governments are required by law to develop a hazard mitigation plan as a condition for receiving certain types of non-emergency disaster assistance. The plans take a risk based approach to reducing risks from natural hazards through mitigation planning. (1269)
Floodplain Development Manual: The Management of Flood Liable Land (NSW) - NSW Department of Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources
The Flood Plain Development Manual aims to reduce the impact of flooding and flood liability on individual owners and occupiers of flood prone property and reduce private and public losses resulting from floods. The Flood Manual recognises that local governments are primarily responsible for floodplain risk management. It also recognises the importance of continuing flood risk addressed in the State Emergency Service Act 1989 (NSW) and the recognition of the potential implications of climate change on flooding behaviour. The Flood Manual applies to all floodplains across NSW in both urban and rural areas. The Flood Manual provides for a process of developing and implementing floodplain management plans based on flood risk assessment studies which analyse the existing, future and continuing flood risk. (1283)
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Floodplain Risk Management Guideline: Practical Consideration of Climate Change (NSW) - NSW Government Department of Environment and Climate Change
The NSW Floodplain Development Manual requires consideration of climate change in flood risk management studies as part of the strategic management of flood risk. This Guideline provides detailed advice to local councils to support the consideration of climate change in managing flood risk. The Guideline states that the climate change factors affecting flood behaviours and their degree of influence vary with location and therefore it is essential that studies for specific locations consider these impacts and their ramifications. The 2007 Flood Guidelines provide examples of climate change risk such as SLR and increased frequency of heavy rainfall events. (1284)
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Framing Climate: Implications for Local Government Policy Response Capacity - Donovan Burton and Dianne Dredge
This research paper examines how the issue of climate change is translated into local government planning and policy and offers an informative discussion on the difficulties Australian local governments face in dealing with this complex issue. This paper contributes to policy debate about the role and responsibilities of local governments in dealing with climate change. (1067)
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Garnaut Climate Change Review - Garnaut, R.
Professor Ross Garnaut was commissioned by all of the Australian governments to examine the impacts of climate change on the Australian economy and to recommend policy frameworks to improve the prospects of sustainable prosperity. The Garnaut Review addresses climate change adaptation in Ch. 15. The Review acknowledges that the impacts of climate change on coastal settlements and infrastructure will be large. For existing settlements, the Review suggests changes in both building design and materials are effective options for adaptation at reduced cost if retrofitting aligns with asset renewal. For new settlements, it is recommended that infrastructure by built away from highly exposed positions. By 2100 under a best-estimate no-mitigation case, the Review anticipates that measures for coastal protection may not be adequate to withstand the damaging impacts of climate change on buildings. The relocation of industries, activities and households away from certain coastal areas may be the only available adaptation response. (1045)
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Gold Coast City Sustainable Flood Management Strategy (QLD) - Gold Coast City Council
The Gold Coast is subject to existing, future and residual flood risks and has experienced more than 45 floods since 1925. Past flood events caused moderate to extensive damage to private property, community buildings, bridges and roads. Comprehensive flood studies on the Gold Coast have shown that several thousand properties across the whole city would experience over-floor flooding during a one-in-100-year flood event. This SFMS introduces a holistic approach towards flood risk management by implementing measures aimed at: The SFMS is a corporate strategy that ensures flood risk management is core business for Council and a priority of the community. It integrates flood risk management as a key consideration in Council’s corporate governance arrangements and day-to-day operations. It also contributes to the achievement of the Bold Future Vision, prepared in consultation with the Gold Coast community. (1382)
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Greater Working with Natural Processes in Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management Report (UK) - The Environment Agency
Greater working with natural processes refers to taking action to manage flood and coastal erosion risk by protecting, restoring and emulating the natural regulating function of catchments, rivers, floodplains and coasts. This report is a summary of scientific, environmental and engineering knowledge in response to the Pitt Review Recommendation 27 that greater working with natural processes should be implemented through Catchment Flood Management Plans and Shoreline Management Plans with the aim of providing more sustainable solutions to flood and coastal risk management. This report aims to provide practitioners with a high quality basis for achieving greater working with nature. (1279)
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Health Impacts of Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies for Western Australia - Western Australian Government Department of Health
Published in 2008, this Western Australian Government Department of Health report presents the outcomes of a Health Impact Assessment of Climate Change project. The report identifies the potential health impacts Western Australian’s are likely to experience as a result of climate change. A range of adaptation strategies are discussed. (1062)
High resolution terrain mapping of the NSW Central and Hunter coasts for assessments of potential climate change impacts: Final project report - NSW Government Department of Planning
This is the final report of a climate change mapping project overseen by the NSW Department of Planning. The project used airborne laser technology to map low-lying areas in the Wyong, Lake Macquarie, Newcastle City and Port Stephens council areas. The project provides councils and the NSW government with information about the likely impacts of sea level rise on low lying coastal areas for the purposes of planning. (1258)
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Historic and Projected Impacts of Climate Change on the Coastal Climatic Zone of the Hunter, Central and Lower North Coast - Blackmore, K. L. and Goodwin, I. D.
This report provides a detailed analysis of historic and projected climate variability specifically for the Hunter and Central Coast region’s coastal climatic zone. Analysis of climate parameters is provided for rainfall, pan evaporation, humidity, water balance, wind speed & wind gust. This report builds on the overall research outcomes of the Hunter and Central Coast Regional Environment Management Strategy (HCCREM) Regional Climate Change Research project. (1403)
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How Climate Change Could Affect Sport and Recreation Now and in the Future - Government of Western Australia Department of Sport and Recreation
This report sets out the direct and indirect impacts of climate change on sport and recreation in Western Australia, and strategic and operational responses to climate change. A framework to assess and respond to the impacts of climate change on sport and recreation is provided. (1063)
Human Health and Climate Change in Oceania: A Risk Assessment - Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing
This 2003 report provides a risk assessment of possible health impacts from climate change on the Australian population. The report includes information on coastal impacts such as sea level rise and malaria. A number of climate change scenarios are employed to deal with the uncertainties in climate change health risk assessments. This report was written for the Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing. (1152)
Hunter, Central and Lower North Coast Region of NSW Climate Change Program - Hunter and Central Coast Regional Environmental Management Strategy
The Hunter and Central Coast Regional Environmental Management Strategy (HCCREMS) is a collaborative initiative in sustainable development of fourteen Councils in the Hunter, Central and Lower North coast region of NSW. The Regional Climate Change Adaptation Project is a partnership between HCCREMS, Newcastle Innovation and the Tom Farrell Institute for the Environment (University of Newcastle). The need for local action on climate change has been recognised by Councils in the Hunter, Central and Lower North Coast region of NSW. The Regional Climate Change Program aims to: • Improve understanding by councils and their communities of climate change and its likely impacts • Identify the key risks to councils and their communities arising from climate change • Develop and implement adaptation strategies to manage priority risks A range of initiatives and outputs can be viewed at this site. (1181)
ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability - ICLEI
ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability is an international association of local governments and local government organisations committed to sustainable development. ICLEI supports local government sustainability initiatives by providing technical advice, training, political support and information. This website provides information on ICLEI programs, services, publications, news and events. (1013)
Impacts of Climate Change on Australian Marine Life - Hobday, A.J., Okey, T.A., Poloczanska, E.S., Kunz, T.J., Richardson, A.J. (eds)
This report draws together knowledge of climate change impacts on Australian marine life. The report includes projections for Australian marine climate and potential impacts of climate change on ecosystems and human settlements. Recommendations are made to address information gaps and build resilience to climate change. The report was published in 2006 by CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research. (1053)
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Impacts of Climate Change on Disadvantaged UK Coastal Communities (UK) - Zsamboky, M., Fernandez-Bilbao, A., Smith, D., Knight, J. and Allan, J.
This study explores the nature of the vulnerability of disadvantaged UK coastal communities to climate change and the implications for adaptation responses. The study identifies five main coastal areas vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, considers the social impacts on disadvantaged communities and the barriers to adaptation. The report identified the key driver of disadvantage is the ageing populations in U.K. coastal communities. (1337)
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Implications of Climate Change for Australia's National Reserve System: A Preliminary Assessment - Dunlop, M. and Brown, P.R.
The National Reserve System (NRS) is a network of almost 9000 protected areas including national parks, nature reserves, private conservation reserves, Indigenous Protected Areas and other reserve types covering 88 million hectares (11.5% of the continent). This report examines the implications of climate change for the development and management of the NRS. It is largely concerned with the impacts of climate change on biodiversity and the management implications, and includes information on coasts and oceans. The report was prepared by CSIRO for the former Departments of Climate Change and Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. (1051)
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Improving Community Resilience to Extreme Weather Events - Insurance Council of Australia
This policy paper identifies regulatory, community and industry initiatives required for community to adapt to extreme weather events as a result of climate change. In this paper community resilience is treated as a function of the built and social environment. (1416)
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Increasing Flood Performance of New Buildings (UK) 2007 - Bowker, P., Escarameia, M. and Tagg, A.
This guidance document is the outcome of a joint research project between Communities and Local Government and the Environment Agency and has strong links to the Government’s strategy for managing flood risk “Making space for water” that is co-ordinated by the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. This guide explains how to build and describes how buildings should be constructed in order to minimise flood damage, as part of a package including flood awareness, warning and emergency planning. This document aims to provide guidance to developers and designers on how to improve the resilience of new properties in low or residual flood risk areas by the use of suitable materials and construction details. These approaches are appropriate for areas where the probability of flooding is low or areas where flood risk management or mitigation measures have been put in place. The guidance will also be useful to planners, building control officers and loss adjusters. Specifically this guidance document provides: practical and easy-to-use guidance on the design and specification of new buildings (primarily housing) in low or residual flood risk areas in order to reduce the impacts of flooding; recommendations for the construction of flood resistant and resilient buildings. (1331)
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Indicative Mapping of Tasmanian Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise - Sharples, C.
The Chris Sharples report 'Indicative Mapping of Tasmanian Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change and Sea Level Rise: Explanatory Report, 2nd edition' outlines the vulnerability of the Tasmanian coastline to the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise. By integrating geomorphology and topography, the report maps coastal areas potentially vulnerable to climate change impacts such as sea-level rise. It provides a valuable tool for the assessment of coastal development, zoning and land use planning. The report does not identify 'a new risk', but rather draws together existing information into a form more useful for the Tasmanian situation. (1251)
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Informed Adaptation to a Changed Climate State: Is South-Western Australia a National Canary? - Indian Ocean Climate Initiative
This Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI) research paper tracks climate change impacts in the south-west of Western Australia since the 1970’s when an abrupt change in climate state occurred, reducing winter rainfall and associated stream-flows and groundwater recharge. This paper also offers information on the State’s construction of climate research under the IOCI and its role in supporting climate change adaptation. (1066)
Infrastructure and Climate Change Risk Assessment Report - CSIRO, Maunall Australia and Phillips Fox
This CSIRO report for the Victorian Government assesses the potential impacts of climate change on Victoria’s infrastructure, identifies the infrastructure types most at risk and discusses opportunities for adaptation. Governance structures associated with each type of infrastructure are outlined. The Australian Standard for risk assessment forms the basis of the approach taken in this report. (1153)
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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) website provides access to IPCC Assessment reports and presentations. The IPCC is a scientific intergovernmental body established by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information applicable to climate change understanding, adaptation and mitigation. (1009)
IOCI Note Series on Observed Climate Change in the South-West of Western Australia. - Indian Ocean Climate Initiative
The Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI) has produced a range of bulletins and notes on the changing climate of south west of Western Australia that can be downloaded from this webpage. The series, 'How Has Our Climate Changed?', provides an introduction to changes in temperature, rainfall, sea-level, river flow and groundwater recharge in the south west of Western Australia. (1074)
IPCC Assessment Reports (First through Fifth) - The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
The  IPCC Assessment Reports provide a comprehensive analysis of the key future impacts and vulnerabilities of climate change, including discussions of coastal impacts and vulnerabilities and case studies of coastal adaptation.   (1043)
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Kauai Shoreline Setback Bill (Hawaii, USA) - County of Kauai
Kaua’i’s coastline is subject to a wide variety of natural hazards and chronically retreating shorelines that pose dangers to people and property. In response, there has been widespread construction of protection structures such as sea walls and revetments. These structures have distorted the natural shoreline environment. Kauai County’s Shoreline Setback and Coastal Protection Ordinance (2008) replaces this approach with progressive setback standards for development of a minimum of 40 feet from the certified shoreline. (1273)
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Kyoto Protocol - United Nations
The Kyoto Protocol is a legally binding international agreement that sets targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Kyoto operationalizes the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Kyoto came into legal force from February 16, 2005. Australia ratified the treaty in 2007. (1031)
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Lake Macquarie Waterway Flooding and Tidal Inundation Policy - Lake Macquarie City Council
Lake Macquarie Waterway Flooding and Tidal Inundation Policy replaces the Lake Macquarie Sea Level Rise Preparedness Adaptation Policy (2008). Council approved amendments to the Lake Macquarie Sea Level Rise Preparedness and Adaptation Policy and the change of its name to The Lake Macquarie Waterway Flooding and Tidal Inundation Policy. (1369)
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Limits to Climate Change Adaptation for Two Low-lying Communities in the Torres Strait - McNamara, K.E., Smithers, S.G., Westoby, R. and Parnell, K.
This report contributes to the understanding of the social and cultural limits to adaptation for small island communities in Torres Strait and elsewhere, elicited through interviews and focus groups with key stakeholders within the selected island communities. It seeks to better understand and define the adaptation strategies that communities and community members in the Torres Strait consider to be appropriate, what resources and required, and how and when particular adaptation strategies might be effective or otherwise. Thus the project provides new and necessary information required to guide culturally appropriate adaptation planning and responses for these communities in the future. (1358)
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Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef: Scoping Ecological and Social Limits - Evans, L., Fidelman, P., Hicks, C., Morgan, C., Perry, A.L. and Tobin, R.
This report looks at current and future climate change impacts on the Great Barrier Reef. It studies the perceptions of key stakeholder groups of potential outcomes, in order to better understand the motivations and capacities underlying adaptation action in the region. Extended Summary In this study, we developed a set of four alternative future scenarios to explore different climate change impact and adaptation pathways and their implications for the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and its fishing and tourism industries. We conducted a rapid literature review and a scientific consultation in order to develop the initial scenarios. We then presented and discussed the scenarios in multi-stakeholder workshops and in interviews with representatives from the tourism and fishing industries, non-governmental organisations, local and state government, and the research community. The workshops and interviews explored a range of issues, including i) the plausibility of the scenarios for different parts of the GBR region, ii) the extent to which different industries or groups were able to adapt in certain ways, iii) the limits and opportunities that characterise adaptation, iv) the trade-offs and synergies that occur between sectors, v) possible conflicts that arise from climate change adaptation in the region, and vi) the overall implications for the industries. (1359)
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Living Coast Strategy for South Australia - Natural and Cultural Heritage, Department of Environment and Heritage
The Living Coast Strategy sets out the State Government's environmental policy for sustainable management of South Australia's coastal, estuarine and marine environments. It focuses on promoting environmental stewardship and at the same time supports development of industries operating within sustainable frameworks. The Policy recognises: (a) that coastal development is subject to the hazards of flooding, erosion and acid sulphate soils and that these risks will change over time as a result of climate change; (b) the need to manage existing development and prevent further inappropriate coastal development; and (c) the need to develop a strategic vision for coastal development alongside increased knowledge of coastal hazards and SLR impacts. (1300)
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Living With Our Changing Climate: Report of Workshop - Indian Ocean Climate Initiative
This publication is a report of the IOCI Workshop on climate change impacts in the south-west of Western Australia in August 2005. The Report sets out key climate change impacts by sector in the south-west of WA since 1970. It contains current and future responses to these impacts. (1065)
Local Adaptation Pathways Program (LAPP) - Australian Government Department of the Environment
Local government is at the forefront of managing the impacts of climate change. Through the LAPP program, the Australian Government assisted local governments to prepare their communities for climate change. The emphasis was on early planning to identify and prepare for the risks from climate change in order to protect the well-being of communities, local economies and built and natural environments. (1372)
Local Council Risk of Liability in the Face of Climate Change-Resolving Uncertainties - Baker & McKenzie
This Report aims to assist local government to identify areas of potential legal risk and liability in relation to State and local government laws associated with climate change in coastal areas. The report also identifies: legal and other strategies to mitigate these risks; barriers to effective adaptation; and an assessment of potential national approaches to reduce risks to councils. The report was undertaken by Baker and McKenzie for the Australian Local Government Association and the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. (1276)
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Local General Plans: Climate Change (California, USA) - State of California
California law requires local governments to develop a general plan that acts as a long-term blueprint for development. The Plan sets goals and standards in relation to land-use, transportation, conservation, housing, open space, noise and safety and other optional elements such as climate change adaptation strategies. (1268)
Making Space for Water (UK) - U.K. Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
This document is the result of a community consultation process of the same name setting out the direction for a more holistic approach to managing flood and coastal erosion risks in England. The impetus for Making Space for Water was a series of serious flooding events in the UK starting in 1998 and the growing knowledge that it was not possible to defend or repair all infrastructure and other assets. The approach will involve taking account of all sources of flooding, embedding flood and coastal risk management across a range of Government policies, and reflecting other relevant Government policies in the policies and operations of flood and coastal erosion risk management. The aim will be to manage risks by employing an integrated portfolio of approaches which reflect both national and local priorities, so as to: reduce the threat to people and their property; and deliver the greatest environmental, social and economic benefit, consistent with the Government’s sustainable development principles. Making Space for Water advocates provision of an holistic, risk based approach that is integrated into existing governance regimes. It is designed to be comprehensive in its national application yet flexible enough for local conditions. (1329)
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Managing our Coastal Zone in a Changing Climate: The Time to Act is Now - House of Representatives Standing Committee on Climate Change, Water, Environment and the Arts
This is the report of the national inquiry into climate change and environmental impacts on coastal communities. The Inquiry makes 47 recommendations with respect to coastal zone policy and management, research, governance and institutional arrangements. (1233)
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Mandurah Coastal Zone Climate Change Risk Assessment and Adaptation Plan (WA) - Coastal Zone Management Pty Ltd
A Coastal Climate Change Risk Assessment and Adaptation Project was conducted by the City of Mandurah, supported by funding from the Federal Government of Australia, between November 2008 and July 2009. The first step in the risk assessment process was the identification of the range of potential climate change impacts to which the City of Mandurah coastal zone may be susceptible. These include: (1) Sea level rise increasing rates of erosion of the open ocean coast, leading to increased risk to development adjacent to the active beach zone and/or loss of beach amenity; (2) Modification of sediment transport processes leading to increased erosion in known sediment limited environments, such as in lee of groynes and on rock platforms; (3) Increased water levels within the estuary leading to increased overtopping stress on canal and channel walls and decreased bank stability; and (4) Decline in freshwater entering the estuarine system leading to change in salt/freshwater interface and consequently change in species composition. The risks that these impacts pose to the successful functioning of the City of Mandurah local government were subsequently considered at both a strategic and site-specific level. The strategic risk assessment focused on the entire City of Mandurah coastal zone. (1390)
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Manly Council Ocean Beach Coastline Management Plan - Patterson Britton & Partners
The Manly Council Coastline Management Plan and Emergency Action Plan (EAP) provides a blueprint for the future management of the Manly Ocean Beach area, ensuring that the impact from coastal processes is incorporated into future development and planning. The EAP manages the beach erosion and shoreline recession hazard in a manner that maintains or improves beach amenity and ensures an acceptable risk of damage to beach front assets Council. The EAP takes into account the potential for future climate change to affect the magnitude of coastline hazard through increased storm frequency and intensity. (1183)
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Marine Climate Change: Impacts and Adaptation Report Card Australia 2012 -
This Report Card summarises current knowledge of marine climate change impacts and identifies knowledge gaps and adaptation responses in Australia. (1409)
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Maui County Shoreline Setback Rules (Hawaii, USA) - Maui Planning Commission, Department of Planning
Maui has lost 25% of its beaches since the 1950’s and ongoing erosion is a major threat to oceanfront development. Maui has adopted shoreline setback rules that use site-specific erosion rates, previous shoreline positions and a planning period of 50 years, to determine acceptable locations for new development. Setback policies on Maui incorporate the idea of managed retreat. (1272)
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Medmerry Managed Realignment Scheme (UK) - UK Environment Agency
Medmerry, West Sussex, is one of the coastlines most at risk of flooding in southern England. The realignment scheme will build new flood defences inland and allow a new inter tidal area to develop seaward of the defences. The scheme will improve the protection of property, water treatment works and main roads. It will also create new wildlife habitat, footpaths, cycleways, bridleways and car parks. (1278)
Moreton Bay Regional Council Storm Tide Hazard Study (QLD) - Ctadno Lawson Treloar
This storm tide hazard study identifies and quantifies the risks associated with the possibility of extreme storm tides occurring in the Moreton Bay Regional Council area. The study provides support for long-term town-planning and emergency response needs. It takes a regional approach with regard to storm tide modelling, mapping, risk assessments and mitigation strategies. (1394)
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Moreton Bay Regional Floodplain Database Project (QLD) - Moreton Bay Regional Council
Caboolture Shire, Redcliffe City and Pine Rivers Shire Councils amalgamated in March 2008 to form the Moreton Bay Region Council. The Regional Floodplain Database Project (RFD) is a detailed flood investigation that will result in high quality flood information across the Moreton Bay Regional Council area. The creation of the database involves comprehensive floodplain mapping and development of computer based models. The information in the database will be used to predict where and how flooding may occur. This will allow Council to provide better quality information to the community, including better flood warnings and advice on how to protect your property. The database will also assist Council in any future decisions regarding infrastructure planning, strategic landuse and disaster management in our floodplains.  (1393)
National and State Coastal Governance Arrangements (Draft) - Hofmeester, C.
National Climate Change Adaptation Framework - Council of Australian Governments (COAG) and Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency
The National Climate Change Adaptation Framework sets out an agenda of government collaboration to address key climate change adaptation issues for business and community including strategies and actions for reducing the impacts of climate change and the vulnerability of sectors and regions. (1012)
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National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) -
NCCARF contributes to the research community in a national interdisciplinary effort to generate the information needed by decision-makers in government and in vulnerable sectors and communities to manage the risks of climate change impacts. This website is a repository for their published reports, many of which relate to coastal climate impacts and adaptation. (1001)
National Emergency Risk Management Guidelines - Tasmanian State Emergency Service
These guidelines have been designed to generate an integrated, comprehensive and objective understanding of emergency risks to improve decision making in relation to emergency preparedness measures. The Guidelines provide a methodology to assess risks associated with emergency situations and are principally concerned with risk assessment. The risk assessment methodology is consistent with the Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 Risk management – Principles and guidelines. (1438)
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National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007 - Commonwealth Government
The National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007 (Cth) (NGER Act) requires corporations and facilities that emit greenhouse gases above a certain threshold to report their emissions, energy usage and consumption. As yet, the NGER Act does not apply to unincorporated entities, including most local governments. (1126)
National Sea Change Taskforce - National Sea Change Taskforce
The National Sea Change Taskforce was established in 2004 to represent the interests of Australian coastal councils and communities experiencing the effects of rapid growth and development. The Taskforce provides national leadership in addressing the impacts of rapid growth and planning for climate change. The Sea Change Sustainability Charter seeks the commitment of all spheres of government for a collaborative national response to sea change growth and represents an important step towards development of a policy framework. (1206)
National Sea Change Taskforce Policy Framework for Coastal Australia (Draft) - National Sea Change Taskforce
This draft Coastal Sustainability Charter and Policy Framework has been developed by the National Sea Change Taskforce as the basis for an advocacy campaign. It is a work in progress and will be further developed to incorporate comment and input from member councils of the Taskforce and other relevant stakeholders. (1374)
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National Strategy for Disaster Resilience - Council of Australian Governments
The National Strategy for Disaster Resilience was adopted by COAG on 13 February 2011. The purpose of the Strategy is to provide high-level guidance on disaster management to federal, state, territory and local governments, business and community leaders and the not-for-profit sector. It takes a whole-of-nation resilience-based approach to disaster management, which recognises that a national, coordinated and cooperative effort is needed to enhance Australia’s capacity to prepare for, withstand and recover from disasters. The Strategy recognises that climate change will increase the uncertainty of future risks. (1437)
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Natural Disaster Resilience Program - Australian Government Attorney-General
The Natural Disaster Resilience Program (NDRP) is a national initiative in partnership with state governments aimed at addressing natural disaster risk priorities. It replaces the previous Natural Disaster Mitigation Program (NDMP), Bushfire Mitigation Program (BMP) and National Emergency Volunteer Support Fund (NEVSF). A key aim of the NPA is to enhance Australia’s resilience to natural disasters through mitigation works, measures and related activities that contribute to safer, sustainable communities better able to withstand the effects of disasters, particularly those arising from the impact of climate change. Funding targets activities that enhance disaster resilience in accordance with the National Strategy for Disaster Resilience. (1108)
Northern Territory Climate Change Policy - Northern Territory Government
The Northern Territory Climate Change Policy 2009 (NT Climate Change Policy) sets out the Northern Territory's 'Action Plan' for responding to climate change. The Policy contains nine elements, with goals and a supporting action plan. According to the Policy: 55 Actions carried out under the policy will be developed and driven by all Territory Government agencies with implementation coordinated by the Department of the Chief Minister. In addition, an annual climate change forum will be held at which a progress report on the Northern Territory Climate Change Policy will be presented. Much of the focus of the NT Climate Change Policy is on reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and energy use, and there is little specific focus on CCC risks (aside from risks to wetlands and floodplains from SLR) and management responses. (1318)
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Northern Territory Coastal Management Policy - Northern Territory Government
The Northern Territory Coastal Management Policy 1985 (NT CMP) is currently under review. It does not appear to be publicly available. According to the Darwin Harbour Regional Plan of Management 2003 (2003 Plan), the NT CMP sets out the following guiding principles for marine and coastal management in the Northern Territory: (a) integrated management and protection of the marine and coastal zone is the responsibility of all sectors in the community; (b) natural and cultural values of the marine and coastal zones will be protected; (c) management of the marine and coastal zones will be according to the principles of ecologically sustainable development; and (d) environmental, economic, cultural and social considerations will be considered in order to achieve equitable management outcomes. (1315)
Northern Territory Disasters Act - Northern Territory Government
Emergency response in the Northern Territory is governed by the Northern Territory Disasters Act (Disasters Act), which is overseen by the Minister for Police, Fire and Emergency Services (Minister). The Minister has overall responsibility for the Disasters Act and operates through the Territory Counter, which comprises the following key elements: • Northern Territory Counter - Disaster Council; Northern Territory Counter - Disaster Controller; and Northern Territory Emergency Service (NTES). The Northern Territory Counter - Disaster Council is responsible for advising the Minister on disaster policy and issues, approving all counter-disaster plans. The Disaster Council also advises and directs the Territory Controller and Director NTES with regard to implementation of counter-disaster measures. Under the Disaster Act, the Minister may declare a state of emergency. "Emergency" means an event that causes the loss of life or property, or injury to persons or property or distress to persons, or in any way endangers the safety of the public in any part of the Territory, in which the provision of counter disaster measures is not within the capabilities of a normal government service or privately owned service available at the time but the combined available services are adequate to provide appropriate counter disaster measure. (1320)
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Northern Territory Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan 2010-2015 - Territory Natural Resource Management
This plan arose out of the need to revise the 2005 INRM Plan. This plan follows and draws on the Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan for the Northern Territory 2005 (2005 INRM Plan). The purpose of the Northern Territory Integrated Natural Resource Management Plan 2010-2015 (2010 INRM Plan) is to: guide investments and activities in Natural Resource Management in the Territory from 2010 to 2015; encourage greater involvement in NRM in the Territory; identify opportunities for new partnerships and investors; inform future NRM policies and priorities of the Northern Territory and Australian Governments, and encourage increased funding into NRM in the Territory from diverse sources. (1317)
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Northern Territory Planning Act 1999 - Northern Territory Government
The key piece of legislation governing planning in the Northern Territory is the Planning Act. The Planning Act provides for a single, integrated Northern Territory Planning Scheme (NT Planning Scheme), which applies to the whole of the Northern Territory except any area of land for which another planning scheme applies (such as the Town of Jabiru), or which is specified in the NT Planning Scheme as being excluded. The Planning Act does not specifically require a consent authority to consider coastal climate change (or climate change generally) when deciding a development application. However, on 10 February 2011 the Greater Darwin Region Land Use Plan – Towards 2030 consultation paper (Land Use Plan) was released for comment. Climate change is one of the specific targets of the Land Use Plan, which specifically states that it has been prepared in the context of sustainability policies that include: (a) "vulnerability mapping to be used to identify areas at high or severe risk of climate change impact such as rising sea level, emerging tropical diseases and severe storm events in developing future areas"; and (b) "accessibility for emergency services and cyclone infrastructure to be incorporated as part of new and existing Greenfield site development". The Land Use Plan also emphasises the need for monitoring and review, recognising that, for example, climate change investigation and possible inundation of land could have a negative effect on the provision of dwellings (1319)
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NSW Coastal Panel -
The NSW Coastal Panel is a statutory authority under Section 2A of the Coastal Protection Act. The Panel’s role is to provide expert advice to the Minister administering the Act and to local councils. The Panel is the consent authority for coastal protection works other than areas of coast covered by a coastal zone management plan or emergency coastal works. (1263)
NSW Coastal Planning Guideline: Adapting to Sea Level Rise - Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW
The NSW Coastal Planning Guideline: Adapting to Sea Level Rise applies to all coastal areas of NSW, including the NSW Coastal Zone, as well as Sydney Harbour and Botany Bay. The term ‘coastal areas’ is used broadly to include the coastline, beaches, coastal lakes, estuaries, as well as the tidal reaches of coastal rivers. It also includes other low-lying land surrounding these areas that may be subject to coastal processes in the future as a consequence of sea level rise. The Guideline adopts the following six coastal planning principles for sea level rise adaptation: 1. Assess and evaluate coastal risks taking into account sea level rise. 2. Advise the public of coastal risks to ensure that informed land use planning and development decision-making can occur. 3. Avoid intensifying land use in coastal risk areas through appropriate strategic and land-use planning. 4. Consider options to reduce land use intensity in coastal risk areas where feasible. 5. Minimise the exposure to coastal risks from proposed development in coastal areas. 6. Implement appropriate management responses and adaptation strategies, with consideration for the environmental, social and economic impacts of each option. Please note that the 2009 NSW Sea Level Rise Policy Statement is no longer NSW Government policy. Any reference to the ‘NSW sea level rise planning benchmarks’ in other guidelines and documents should be taken as meaning ‘council's adopted sea level rise projections’ where available. Councils are encouraged to give local sea level rise projections due and proper consideration. (1259)
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NSW Coastal Policy 1997 - NSW Government
The 1997 NSW Coastal Policy provides a broad policy framework for the management of the physical, economic, ecological and cultural attributes of the coast based on the principles of ecologically sustainable development. The Coastal Policy requires impacts of natural coastal processes and hazards to be addressed in the coastline management plans administered by the relevant government department and management programs implemented by local councils in partnership with state agencies. The Coastal Policy notes that investigations of monitoring of climate change for coastal areas will continue and sea level rise scenarios will be incorporated into management plans and other mechanisms where appropriate. It does not contain specific measures for incorporating SLR into decision making. (1282)
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NSW Coastal Protection Act 1979 - NSW Government
The Coastal Protection Act is the principal legislation relating to coastal management in NSW. Amendments to the Act as of 1 January 2011, facilitate improved coastal zone management planning including coastal climate change adaptation. The Act is administered by the Minister for the Environment and the Office of Environment and Heritage. The main objectives of the CP Act are to provide for the protection of the coastal environment of NSW for the benefit of both present and future generations. The Act is designed to encourage and promote plans and strategies for adaptation in response to coastal climate change impacts, including projected SLR.2. (1261)
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NSW Coastal Protection and Other Legislation Amendment Bill 2010 (No 2) - NSW Government
The purpose of this Act is to amend the Coastal Protection Act 1979 and other legislation to deal with coastal erosion and projected sea level rise. It includes amendments related to: enabling landowners to place certain emergency coastal protection works (such as sandbags) on beaches and sand dunes to mitigate erosion without obtaining development consent; and enabling local councils to make and levy an annual charge for the provision of coastal protection services (such as services to maintain coastal protection works or to manage the impacts of such works) on rateable land that benefits from such services. (1264)
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NSW Code of Practice under the Coastal Protection Act 1979 - Department of Environment and Climate Change and Water NSW
The Code of Practice relates to emergency coastal protection works under the Coastal Protection Act. (1262)
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NSW Environmental Planning and Assessment Act 1979 No 203 - NSW Government
Land use planning and development in NSW is largely regulated under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act. The Act is administered by the Minister for Planning and Infrastructure, the Department of Planning and Infrastructure and local councils. Local councils are provided with statutory immunity from liability when exercising their planning functions under the Act in relation to coastal land affected by a coastal hazard or land being affected by flooding provided they act in 'good faith'. Acting in 'good faith' generally means acting in accordance with the principles in the CZMP Guidelines and Flood Manual. This provides a legal incentive for local councils to give effect to the principles in the CZMP Guidelines and Guides, particularly as they relate to SLR and climate change. (1287)
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NSW Flood Risk Management Guide: Incorporating Sea Level Rise Benchmarks in Flood Risk Assessments - Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW
This Guide assists local government, developers and consultants to incorporate sea level rise benchmarks adopted by the NSW government into flood plain risk management and flood risk assessments for new development. The Flood Guide updates the SLR information in the Flood Manual and the Floodplain Risk Management Guideline: Practical Consideration of Climate Change. (1266)
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NSW Guidelines for Preparing Coastal Zone Management Plans (NSW) - NSW Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water
The Coastal Zone Management Plans Guidelines provide guidance to local councils, their consultants and coastal communities on the preparation of a Coastal Zone Management Plan. The Guidelines specify the minimum requirements to be met when preparing a draft CZM Plan, in addition to the requirements in the Coastal Protection Act 1979 (NSW). CZM Plans are required to support the goals and objectives of the NSW Coastal Policy 1997 and the NSW Sea Level Rise Policy Statement (2009). Councils are to submit draft CZM Plans to the Minister for the Environment for certification under the CP Act. (1286)
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NSW Sea Level Rise Policy Statement - Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water NSW
The Sea Level Rise Policy Statement set planning benchmarks for the NSW coastline in regards to sea level rise adaptation. Setbacks of 40cm to 2050 and 90cm to 2100 above 1990 mean sea levels superseded the existing NSW Coastline Hazard Policy. However, the NSW Sea Level Rise Policy has itself been superseded. As part of its stage one coastal management reforms, the NSW Government announced that councils would have the flexibility to determine their own sea level rise projections to suit their local conditions - the Government would no longer prescribe state-wide sea level rise projections for use by councils. The 2009 NSW Sea Level Rise Policy Statement is thus no longer NSW Government policy. (1260)
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OZCLIM Climate Change Scenario Generator - CSIRO
OzClim (CSIRO) generates climate change scenarios for Australia or by region. A step-by-step guide is available or an advanced option for policy making and scientific research. Maps and projections can be downloaded for non-commercial research. (1075)
OzCoasts Sea Level Rise - OzCoasts: Australian Online Coastal Information
OzCoasts provides an introduction to global sea level rise and issues arising from sea level rise in relation to coasts, estuaries and marine ecosystems. (1080)
Pacifica State Beach Managed Retreat (California, USA) - City of Pacifica
The Pacifica State Beach Managed Retreat strategy began in the early 1990’s to address chronic coastal flooding and beach erosion. The strategy has removed and relocated vulnerable structures, restored wetlands for flood protection, and rebuilt dunes and sandy beach. Creative partnerships at the local and state level helped leverage the public support needed to implement a project that cost millions of dollars and took a decade to complete. Support of local government leaders, particularly the mayor, helped finance the up-front expenses for the ongoing project. Finally, a planned retreat strategy was made more politically viable because project partners had the capital necessary to purchase threatened structures outright. (1277)
Plan to Adapt to Coastal Climate Change (EU) -
This learning portal for the European Union enables authorities and communities to develop their own coastal adaptation strategy by using key methodologies and techniques. It presents 9 case studies from North West Europe. The toolbox includes overviews, visualisation tools, educational tools, legal and policy tools, future scenario techniques, etc. (1442)
Planning and Development Act (2005) - Western Australian State Government
Land use planning in Western Australia is primarily governed by the Planning and Development Act (PD Act) and the Planning and Development Regulations 2009 (WA). The PD Act is administered by the Minister for Planning, the Western Australian Planning Commission (WAPC) and local councils. The PD Act establishes the WAPC which is the primary body for regulating planning in Western Australia. Clause 7 (3) of Schedule 2 of the PD Act establishes the Coastal Planning and Coordination Council (CPCC) as a prescribed statutory committee of the WAPC. This allows the WAPC to deal with coastal management issues as a primary area of concern. The function of the CPCC is to assist the WAPC to monitor, oversee and provide guidance to local planning authorities and other members of the public in relation to all environmental, land use and planning issues affecting coastal waters. (1227)
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Planning for Climate Change Adaptation in Coastal Australia: State of Practice - Gurran, N., Norman, B., Gilbert, C. and Hamin, E.
In this context, this study, commissioned by the National Sea Change Taskforce (NSCT), sought to: • Re-calibrate the specific, multi-dimensional issues associated with climate change adaptation, faced by local government areas in non metropolitan coastal Australia; • Undertake an audit of established and emerging responses to climate change adaptation at local and regional scales in coastal Australia; and, • Identify priorities for further policy, practice, and research development and support, in the context of current legislative, planning and policy frameworks. (1376)
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Planning for Climate Change: Leading Practice Principles and Models for Sea Change Communities in Coastal Australia - Gurran, N., Hamin, E. and Norman, B.
The Planning for Climate Change research report discusses aspects and potential impacts of climate change facing coastal communities in Australia. Prepared for the National Sea Change Taskforce, this report examines the current state of practice as well as leading practice in planning for climate change in coastal amenity areas. Recommendations are made for enhancing local government coastal planning practices in relation to climate change. (1167)
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Port Adelaide-Enfield Seawater and Stormwater Flood Risk Treatment - King, R. and Jacobi, D.
The City of Port Adelaide has undertaken detailed seawater and stormwater flood risk assessments of low lying land in the LeFevre Peninsula and ponding basins in Gillman over the past five years. A TUFLOW 2D hydraulic model was developed to provide greater understanding of the tidal behaviour of the Port River and to model the impact of extreme tides on inland areas. The analysis has been employed to facilitate damage estimate calculations based on flood inundation depths, and to assess the effectiveness of flood protection works such as seawalls, flood levees and stormwater pump stations. Currently the Council is developing risk protection options, taking into account projected rises in global sea level and ongoing regional land subsidence. Planning restrictions for Port waterfront residential development, sea walls and tide barrier gates are among the options being considered. This study has been carried out with funding from the Federal Government’s Natural Disaster Mitigation Program and the South Australian Government. (1185)
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Positive Change - Climate Change Risks and Opportunities for the Cairns Region (QLD) - AECOM Australia Pty Ltd
Cairns Regional Council has undertaken a climate change risk assessment for Council assets and has formulated a Climate Change Adaptation Action Plan. This project was funded by the Federal Department of Climate Change as part of their Local Adaptation Pathways Program (LAPP). Cairns Regional Council elected to undertake a climate change risk assessment to better understand and capture the range of climate change risks and opportunities that the Council may encounter in the delivery of its services to the community. A qualitative risk assessment has been undertaken and possible climate change adaptation actions identified for risks that were assessed as being a high priority for climate change adaptation action. The risk assessment was undertaken in accordance with Cairns Regional Council’s risk management framework, which is consistent with the Australian and New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4360 Risk Management. (1381)
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Potential Flood Risks on the Gold Coast (QLD) - Gold Coast City Council
Comprehensive flood studies on the Gold Coast have shown that several thousand properties across the whole city would experience over-floor flooding during a one-in-100-year flood event. The Planning Scheme Flood Maps presented at this site are designed to address the statutory needs of local government with respect to development assessment by identifying hazard areas that are subject to flood, and act as a trigger for development assessment. (1383)
Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Extreme Events in the Coastal Zone of the Hunter, Lower North Coast and Central Coast Region - Blackmore, K.L., Goodwin, I.D., and Wilson, S.
This case study examines the potential impacts of climate change on extreme events in the coastal zone of the Hunter, Central and Lower North Coast region of NSW. Extreme events include extreme rainfall events, extreme heat days, wind gust, storms (East Coast Lows) and extreme sea levels. This case study has been completed as part of a regional research program to identify the regional and sub regional scale impacts of climate change. (1400)
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Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Hunter, Central and Lower North Coast of NSW - Kinrade, P., Arold, N. (Marsden Jacob Associates); Pelikan, M., Sinha, A. (Spatial Vision)
This report provides a high level analysis of a range of potential climate change impacts for the Hunter, Central and Lower North Coast region of NSW. The assessment approach adopted in the report draws heavily on the climate change ‘vulnerability’ framework. Under this framework, the potential impacts of climate change on a community or a system are assessed as the product of their physical ‘exposure’ to climate changes or events and their ‘sensitivity’ to those events. The report is part of a region wide project that aims to assist local councils to assess and manage climate risks both individually and collaboratively across the region. The project has been funded by the Commonwealth Government through the Local Adaptation Pathways Program (LAPP) and through the NSW Environmental Trust. It also builds upon individual council risk assessments previously completed by HCCREMS coastal councils through Statewide Mutual. The report includes and analysis of potential impacts to coasts. (1402)
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Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Swan and Canning Rivers - Technical Advisory Panel for the Swan River Trust
This report provides information about the impacts of climate change on the WA Swan and Canning River system. The report includes: an overview of climate change observations and projections for the Swan and Canning River system; key impacts on ecology, social values, infrastructure, recreation and the economic base; and adaptation strategies for the Swan Canning River system. (1061)
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Preparing for Climate Change: A Guidebook for Local, Regional and State Governments - The Climate Impacts Group and King County (Washington) in association with ICLEI
This Guidebook aims to assist local, regional and state governments plan for the impacts climate change. The Guide sets out a simple yet comprehensive approach based on a series of goals and actions developed in priority planning areas. The Guidebook also provides information on how to implement and update a climate change preparedness plan and measure progress. (1190)
Prospering in a Changing Climate: A Climate Change Adaptation Framework for South Australia - Government of South Australia
The South Australian Government has released for consultation its Prospering in a Changing Climate: A Climate Change Adaptation Framework for South Australia. The Framework provides for regional vulnerability assessments and a sectoral approach. 'Coastal regions' and 'emergency management' are sectors. Coastal management, fisheries and aquaculture and emergency management are considered as sectors. (1302)
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Queensland Coastal Plan - Queensland Government Department of Environment and Resource Management
The Queensland Coastal Plan took effect on 3 February 2012 but was suspended in October 2012. Information on the suspended plan is as follows. The Plan guides coastal management decisions. It consists of the State Policy for Coastal Management and the State Planning Policy for Coastal Protection. Consideration is given to climate change impacts in both aspects of the Plan and is supported by coastal hazard area mapping showing areas projected to be at risk up to the year 2100. Coastal hazard areas are identified using a projected sea-level rise factor of 0.8 metres and an increase in the maximum cyclone intensity by 10 per cent by 2100 to account for the projected impacts of climate change. (1257)
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Queensland Coastal Processes and Climate Change - Queensland Government Department of Environment and Resource Management
The Queensland Coastal Processes and Climate Change document is a resource 'for decision makers and the general public in trying to understand the form and function of Queensland's coast and its vulnerability to a changing climate'. This document provides information on coastal processes and expected climate change impacts, as well as discussing coastal planning and climate change adaptation strategies. (1294)
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Queensland Coastal Protection and Management Act 1995 - Queensland Government
The Coastal Protection and Management Act is the key piece of legislation dealing with coastal management in Queensland. The objects of Act include providing for the protection, conservation, rehabilitation and management of the coastal zone, having regard to the National Strategy for Ecologically Sustainable Development in the use of the coastal zone, and ensuring decisions about land use and development safeguard life and property from the threat of coastal hazards. The Act seeks to achieve these objectives through coordinated and integrated planning and decision-making. (1296)
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Queensland Disaster Management Act 2003 - Queensland Government
The Disaster Management Act 2003 provides the legislative basis for disaster management in Queensland. The Act is administered by the Minister for Police, Corrective Services and Emergency Services and is achieved through the Department of Community Safety whose Chief Executive is given functions under the Act. The Act establishes Local and District Disaster Management Groups, as well as the State Disaster Management Group (the peak disaster management policy and decision making body in Queensland). Each of these groups is required to have a Disaster Management Plan. (1295)
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Queensland Sustainable Planning Act 2009 - Queensland Government
Land use planning in Queensland is primarily governed by the Sustainable Planning Act and the Sustainable Planning Regulation. Section 3 states that the purpose of the Act is to 'seek to achieve ecological sustainability' by managing the process by which development takes place, the effects of development on the environment, and continuing the coordination and integration of planning at the local, regional and State levels. Avoiding or lessening adverse environmental impacts of development, including climate change (reduction in emissions), also constitutes 'advancing the Act's purpose' according to section 5 of the SP Act. (1293)
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Regional Coastal Management Group Support Fund - WA Government Department for Planning
The Coastwest Regional Coastal Management Group Support Fund provides up to $8,000 to regional coastal management groups to assist with administrative and capacity building costs. At present there are two regional coastal management groups in Western Australia: the South Coastal Management Group, which includes Shires from Dundas to Denmark, and CoastSWAP that includes Shires from Manjimup to Mandurah. These groups consist of community, local and State government representatives. Government funding must be met with with an equivalent contribution from the project applicant. (1119)
Regional Infrastructure Funding Program - Western Australian Government Department of Local Government and Regional Development
The Regional Infrastructure Funding Program provides grants between $100,000 and $5 million per project for capital infrastructure projects to assist regional sustainable development. Projects that contribute to protection of the environment are eligible for funding. Local governments are encouraged to apply as joint partners. This program is a part of the Regional Investment Fund, supporting the former Western Australian Government’s regional development policy, Regional Western Australia – A Better Place to Live. This program is administered by the Western Australian Government Department of Local Government and Regional Development. (1121)
Relocation Assistance Programs (USA) - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Relocation assistance and buy-back programs can be used to promote managed retreat in coastal areas and avoid "takings" claims that may arise if a lot is deemed unbuildable when a coastal set-back line is established. Relocation assistance programs provide a voluntary incentive to relocate away from high-hazard areas. This can be more cost-effective over the long-run compared to shoreline stabilization projects that have to be continually maintained and may only prolong a structure's life. Such programs also allow for natural shoreline processes to continue. (1281)
Resilient Cities - ICLEI
Resilient Cities is an annual, global forum for learning, cooperation and networking on urban resilience and climate change adaptation. Resilient Cities is a major part of ICLEI’s Climate Program. (1223)
Review of U.S. Ocean and Coastal Law: The Evolution of Coastal Governance Over Three Decades. Appendix 6 to An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century - U.S. Government Commission on Ocean Policy
Appendix 6 to An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century is a standalone document focusing on legislation. It provides a chronology of laws and statutes that apply in the U.S. and how they interact. The document explores the implications to coastal management and planning of the “takings” clause of the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which  prohibits the government from taking private property for public use without just compensation. The document provides case studies of where ‘takings’ have been said to occur in respect of coastal management. (1327)
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Risk Management Guidelines Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004, Standards Australia/ SAI Global - SAI Global
This is the companion document to the Australian and New Zealand Standard for Risk Management. It can be purchased from this site as a hard copy or PDF. (1149)
Risk Management Training - Risk Management Institute of Australasia
The Risk Management Institute of Australasia (RMIA) offers risk assessment training, workshops and conferences around Australia. RMIA is a professional association of risk management practitioners. (1160)
Risks from Climate Change to Indigenous Communities in the Tropical North of Australia - Green, D., Jackson, S. and Morrison, J.
A scoping study for the Commonwealth Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency, the Western Australian Department of the Environment and Conservation and the Northern Territory Department of Natural Resources. This scoping study was commissioned by the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency (DCCEE). Its purpose is to identify the impacts of climate change on Indigenous communities in Australia’s tropical north and assess the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of these communities. Further, it is intended to assist in identifying knowledge gaps, areas for future research and on-ground priorities. As directed by the terms of reference, the main subject areas investigated include: Projected climate changes; Impacts on Indigenous health due to climate change; Impacts on Indigenous people due to changes to the environment because of climate change; Impacts on infrastructure due to climate change and the effect on service delivery to Indigenous communities; Impacts on Indigenous education due to climate change; Impacts on Indigenous employment and enterprises due to climate change; and Opportunities for Indigenous communities due to climate change. Coastal case studies are included. the case studies provide rich, qualitative and personalised descriptions of the current circumstances facing many Indigenous communities in a variety of environments from which a range of potential and speculative impacts are discussed. This study is limited to the ‘tropical north’, specifically, the Timor Sea and Gulf of Carpentaria drainage basins, and the north-east coastal drainage division north of the city of Cairns. The Pilbara region of Western Australia was included in the study area after discussion with DCCEE staff. This area includes the major northern cities of Darwin and Cairns, larger regional centres of Broome, Kununurra, Katherine, Wadeye (Port Keats), Maningrida, Nhulunbuy, Borroloola and Cooktown, and the mining towns of Port Hedland, Karratha, Mt 6Isa and Weipa. (1323)
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Roadmap for Adapting to Coastal Risk - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Services Centre
NOAA Coastal Services Roadmap for Adapting to Coastal Risk provides a participatory approach for assessing a community’s vulnerability to hazards, and for incorporating relevant data and information about hazards and climate into ongoing local planning and decision-making. More specifically, the Roadmap for Adapting to Coastal Risk approach focuses a hazards and climate lens on existing issues such as water availability, stormwater management and runoff, and infrastructure maintenance and placement. This means identifying how hazards and climate change can intensify these issues. The approach incorporates relevant hazards and climate data and information into ongoing assessment and planning processes. (1158)
Roadmap for Adapting to Coastal Risk (USA) - NOAA Coastal Services
This web page provides a number of case examples of communities in the United States using the NOAA Roadmap and other risk and vulnerability assessment approaches to inform local planning and decision making. (1440)
Rolling Easements Primer - Titus, J.G.
This Primer provides a summary of a number of rolling easement approaches for accommodating inland migration of wetlands and beaches as sea level rises and inundates low lying lands, properties and infrastructure. (1220)
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Sea Country Indigenous Protected Areas - Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities
Sea Country Indigenous Protected Areas involve Indigenous management of Indigenous activities within the marine environment. A sea country Indigenous Protected Area provides a framework for Indigenous communities to work with other groups who have interests in and actively use the marine environment and to allow all stakeholders to work together towards the effective conservation and management in these areas. It is a voluntary arrangement. An Indigenous Protected Area is not established or managed under any Commonwealth, state or territory law. (1435)
Sea Country Plans - Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities
Sea Country Plans help Indigenous communities describe their objectives for the use, conservation and management of sea country. A Sea Country Plan seeks to marry Indigenous community priorities and aspirations with those of others with an interest in sea country, including government. Six Sea Country Plans have been developed and are available from this web page. (1436)
Sea Level Change in Western Australia: Application to Coastal Planning - Bicknell, C.
This report reviews current information on mean sea level variation along the Western Australian coastline and provides recommendations on an allowance for mean sea level change for use in coastal planning. (1229)
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Sea Level Rise Mapping (NSW) - Gosford City Council
Gosford City Council online mapping. Gosford Local Government Area as the third most vulnerable area in NSW to sea level rise. These two sets of maps have been produced to provide an initial indication of the areas that may be potentially impacted by increases in sea levels of up to 90cm. These are the maps that have been used to identify and encode properties on their 149(5) planning certificate message that they are potentially affected by sea level rise of up to 0.9 metres by the year 2100. The information produced in this map service is in response to the Council resolutions dated 27 January 2009 & 1 December 2009 and the NSW Government's 'NSW Sea Level Rise Policy Statement' (released in October 2009). The maps have been produced to share with the community information held by Council and therefore ensure Council is acting in a transparent manner. The maps are designed to inform the community of potentially vulnerable areas within the Gosford Local Government Area should sea levels rise to the upper levels as predicted in documentation released by the NSW State Government. (1370)
Sea Level Rise Maps (Australia) - Australian Government Geoscience Australia
The Australian Government has developed a series of initial sea level rise maps to illustrate the potential impacts of climate change for key urban areas. The maps have been prepared by combining a sea level rise value with a high tide value. They illustrate an event that could be expected to occur at least once a year, but possibly more frequently, around the year 2100. Maps are available to show three sea level rise scenarios: low sea level rise (0.5m), medium sea level rise (0.8m) and high sea level rise (1.1m). These sea level rise scenarios are for a 2100 period, relative to 1990. The sea level rise values are based on IPCC projections (B1 and A1FI scenarios) and more recent science. (1345)
Sea Level Rise: Understanding the past – Improving projections for the future - CSIRO and ACERC
This website makes available information on sea level rise around Australia including projections, impacts, measurements, data and publication. This information is based on the sea level research at CSIRO's Wealth from Oceans National Research Flagship and the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC). is focused on understanding recent (20th century and early 21st century) sea level change as a basis for improving projections of future sea level rise. We use data from tide gauges and satellite altimeters to determine past changes in global mean and regional sea level. We also attempt to understand the reasons for past changes and and use model results for improved projections of future sea level rise. (1411)
Securing our Natural Future: White Paper for Land and Biodiversity at a Time of Climate Change - Victorian Government
This White Paper is a long-term strategic framework to secure the health of Victoria’s land, water and biodiversity in the face of ongoing pressures and climate change over the next 50 years. It is currently under review to ensure it aligns with new government approaches and priorities. (1245)
Shoreline Management Plans (UK) - UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
SMPs are policy documents that translate national policy on flood and coastal erosion into policies for specific stretches of the coastline.1 SMPs are informed by coastal processes, existing habitats that may need protection, and the presence of key infrastructure and settlements, and they set out policies for managing flood and coastal erosion risk. The first generation of SMPs reflected the historical defence practice. However, the second generation of SMPs follows the MSFW direction, resulting in some parts of the coast no longer being defended. A Shoreline Management Plan (SMP) is a large-scale assessment of the risks associated with coastal processes and helps reduce these risks to people and the developed, historic and natural environments. (1338)
Sigma Plan (Flanders) - Flanders Government
The Sigma Plan is about developing a sustainable Scheldt, which includes coastal and estuarine areas. This means development of all the functions of the river in a balanced way. Protection against floods is the first priority of the Sigma Plan. Restoration and development of the European protected nature of the Scheldt region is another priority. The Sigma Plan also improves the possibilities for recreation in and around the Scheldt. And takes full account of the economic functions of the Scheldt region, such as shipping and the countryside economy. Finally, the Sigma Plan is developed in such a way that the disadvantages to agriculture are kept to a minimum. (1342)
Simulation of Coastal Subsidence and Storm Wave Inundation Risk in the Gippsland Basin - Freij-Ayoub, R., Underschultz, J., Li, F., Trefry, C., Hennig, A., Otto, C., McInnes, K.
This study was prompted by falling water levels in the Latrobe Acquifer of the Gippsland Basin and community concern about the potential for land subsidence and inundation. In an effort to reduce uncertainty about subsidence and inundation along the coastline, this study takes into account surface settlement due to aquifer-pressure depletion and predicted extreme storm surge, tide and wave conditions within various climate-change scenarios. A series of coastal inundation risk maps have been developed. (1059)
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Smartline Coastal Geomorphic Map of Australia - Sharples, C. and Mount, R.
The Smartline map of coastal Australia (including most adjacent islands but excluding the Great Barrier Reef) is a detailed geomorphic map representing both the topography of the coast and describing the differing landform types. The maps provide a national-scale map of coastal landform types, presented in a single nationally-consistent format and classification for the purpose of assessing the vulnerability of Australia's coast to sea-level rise. (1241)
Socioeconomic Assessment and Response for Climate Change Impacts on Clarence Foreshores - Interim Report - SGS Economics and Planning Pty. Ltd.
The Clarence City Council recognises that climate change is a reality and has taken the decision to assess risk, risk perception and vulnerability of its LGA to climate change events in foreshore areas and explore adaptation options as well as find out how to best communicate with its residents about the issue. The Socioeconomic Assessment and Response for Climate Change Impacts on Clarence Foreshores - Interim Report undertakes a social and institutional analysis of the Clarence City Council region, as part of the development of a coastal management strategy for assessment and response to climate change impacts on Clarence foreshores. The Report sought community views about adaptation options. (1252)
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South Australian Coast Protection Act 1972 - South Australian Government
The Coast Protection Act 1972 is the key piece of legislation dealing with the coast in South Australia. Its provides for the conservation and protection of the beaches and coast of South Australia. The Act establishes the Coastal Protection Board (CPB). The Act provides for the declaration of 'coastal districts' and for the appointment of a consultative committee in respect of each district. The CPB is required to develop a management plan for each coastal district. (1306)
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South Australian Coast Protection Board Policy - SA Coast Protection Board
The Coast Protection Board Policy (2004) was revised in 2012. (1303)
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South Australian Development Act 1993 - South Australian Government
In South Australia the Development Act is primarily responsible for land use planning. Under the Development Act, the principal state-wide planning document is the South Australian Planning Strategy. The Planning Strategy is divided into seven volumes (and includes the 30-Year Plan for Greater Adelaide) based on regional areas. The plans within the Planning Strategy includes provisions relating to the potential impacts of climate change on coastal development. (1307)
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South Australian Emergency Management Act 2004 - South Australian Government
Emergency response in South Australia is governed by the Emergency Management Act 2004 (SA) (EM Act). The EM Act establishes State Emergency Management Committee (SEMC) which reports to the Emergency Management Council (EMC) and is chaired by the Chief Executive, Department of the Premier and Cabinet. The SEMC provides leadership and oversight of emergency management planning in the State. Under the EM Act, 'emergency' means an event that causes, or threatens to cause the death of, or injury or other damage to the health of, any person, the destruction of, or damage to, any property, a disruption to essential services or to services usually enjoyed by the community, or harm to the environment, or to flora or fauna. The EM Act requires the SEMC to prepare and keep under review the State Emergency Management Plan. The State Emergency Management Plan (and sub-plans) comprise strategies for the prevention of emergencies in the State. Also for ensuring that the State is adequately prepared for emergencies, including strategies for the containment of emergencies, the coordination of response and recovery operations and the orderly and efficient deployment of resources and services in connection with response and recovery operations The State Coordinator may declare an emergency to be an 'identified major incident' or a 'major emergency'. The Governor may declare that a major emergency is a 'disaster' if he or she is satisfied that the nature or scale of the emergency is, or is likely to be, such that it should be declared to be a disaster. (1309)
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South Australian Policy on Coast Protection and New Coastal Development - SA Coastal Protection Board
The Policy on Coast Protection and New Coastal Development has been prepared by the Coastal Protection Board. The Policy currently sets a SLR standard of 0.3m by 2050 (replacing 0.15m which had been applied previously) and 1.0m by 2100. The policy stipulates: development must be able to accommodate changes in sea level during the first 100 years of its life; development will not require public funds for protection in the future; and that development be designed and sited so that it does not prevent natural coastal processes including landward migration of mangroves, coastal salt marsh and dune systems. The policy provides for the minimisation of coastal hazards by ensuring site development levels are at least 0.3 metres above sea flood levels; that floor levels are 0.55 metres above sea flood levels and protect development from an additional rise in sea levels of 0.7 metres and including that from land subsidence by 2100; small scale development should be set back from coastal erosion a sufficient distance to provide for 100 years of coastal retreat and 200 metres for large scale development. (1301)
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South East Queensland Climate Adaptation Research Initiative - CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship, Griffith University, The University of the Sunshine Coast and The University of Queensland
The South East Queensland Climate Adaptation Research Initiative (SEQ-CARI) examined south-east Queensland's vulnerability to climate change and developed strategies to help the region adapt. The initiative developed detailed climate change projections for south-east Queensland and assess the comparative vulnerability of each sub-region. This three year initiative was a collaboration among CSIRO, universities, state and local governments and community groups. (1395)
State of the Regions Report 2008-2009 - National Economics
The State of the Regions (SOR) is a report published annually by the Australian Local Government Association. It is officially launched at the Regional Cooperation and Development Forum, held each June in Canberra. Every local government authority is allocated within a regional types or zone. The regional typologies consist of: Knowledge-intensive regions, Dispersed Metro, Independent City, Lifestyle regions, Resource Based and Rural Regions. The report provides a detailed analysis how these regions are performing and then analyses the likely consequences of current issues, be they demographic, climate change, or telecommunications in nature on the different types of SOR zones. Natural disasters on the coast are included. (1192)
State Planning Policy 2 Environment and Natural Resources - Western Australian Planning Commission
The State Planning Policy 2: Environment and Natural Resources (2002) (SPP 2) is a State policy made under the Planning and Development Act 2005 (WA) (PD Act). It was released by the Western Australian Planning Commission in June 2003. SPP 2 prescribes the requirements for responsible environmental and natural resource planning in line with the West Australian Government Planning Strategy. The objectives of SPP 2 are to: integrate environment and natural resource management with broader land use planning and decision- making; protect, conserve and enhance the natural environment; and promote and assist in the wise and sustainable use and management of natural resources. The policy contains several measures in clause 5.1 intended to assist with coastal protection including measures to 'safeguard and enhance areas of environmental significance on the coast' and ensure use and development on the coast is compatible with future sustainable use and to take into account the potential for impacts from changes in climate and weather on human activities and cultural heritage. Clause 5.10 of SPP 2 states that planning strategies, schemes and decision making should 'support the adoption of adaptation measures that may be required to respond to climate change'. (1141)
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State Planning Policy 2.6 State Coastal Planning - Western Australian Planning Commission
The State Coastal Planning Policy provides for the long term sustainability of WA’s coast. The policy provides guidance for land use and development decision-making within the coastal zone including managing development and land use change; establishment of coastal foreshore reserves; and to protect, conserve and enhance coastal values. The policy recognises and responds to regional diversity in coastal types; requires that coastal hazard risk management and adaptation is appropriately planned for; encourages innovative approaches to managing coastal hazard risk; and provides for public ownership of coastal foreshore reserves. The policy provides guidance on coastal adaptation to sea level rise. (1142)
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State Sustainability Strategy 2003 - The Western Australian Government Department of Environment and Conservation
The Western Australian Government’s State Sustainability Strategy is a long-term agenda for the incorporation of sustainability into government decision-making. Released in 2003, the Strategy sets out a comprehensive framework for sustainability, addressing environmental, social and economic goals. (1022)
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Staten Island’s Bluebelt Program - City of New York
New York’s Staten Island Bluebelt Program was developed to reduce the risk of flooding by using wetlands and storm water retention ponds as opposed to culverts and levees. Areas of wetlands were acquired by the City of New York to deliver the program now numbering 16 watersheds. These ponds are connected by Bluebelts which offer a whole of system response to localised flooding. The program has proved to be a highly cost effective alternative to conventional barrier and culvert construction. The Staten Island Bluebelt is an award winning, ecologically sound and cost-effective storm water management for approximately one third of Staten Island’s land area. The program preserves natural drainage corridors, called Bluebelts, including streams, ponds, and other wetland areas. Preservation of these wetland systems allows them to perform their functions of conveying, storing, and filtering storm water. In addition, the Bluebelts provide important community open spaces and diverse wildlife habitats. The Bluebelt program saves tens of millions of dollars in infrastructure costs when compared to providing conventional storm sewers for the same land area. This program demonstrates how wetland preservation can be economically prudent and environmentally responsible. (1341)
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Stern Review - Stern, N., UK Government Economic Service
The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change is a comprehensive analysis of the economics of climate change. The impacts, risks, costs and opportunities associated with climate change are discussed in the first part of the Review. In the second part, recent scientific evidence of climate change is considered, economic effects and approaches to modelling. The Review argues that taking action on climate change now will be cost-effective in the long-term. (1044)
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Storm Tides, Coastal Erosion and Inundation (Australia) - Helman, P., Thomalla, F. and Metusela, C.
This study reviews the vulnerability of Australian coastal communities to storm tides by analysing historical storm surges and more recent storm events along Australia’s East Coast. Narrabeen, Byron Bay and the Gold Coast are used as case studies to conduct a detailed analysis of the vulnerabilities, impacts and responses to past events in these communities. The report identifies lessons learnt from past events, and looks at current challenges and priorities that should be considered when developing appropriate adaptation responses in Australian coastal communities. (1360)
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Surfer’s Point Managed Shoreline Retreat Project, Ventura, California (USA) - Ventura City Council, California Coastal Commission, Surfrider Foundation, Ventura County Fairgrounds, California Coastal Conservancy, California State Parks
The Surfer’s Point Managed Shoreline Retreat Project is a community partnership to address ongoing coastal erosion. The managed retreat includes beach restoration to protect the beach from coastline erosion, relocating bike paths and a storm-water filtration system to treat runoff and prevent pollutants reaching the Ventura River estuary and ocean. This project is featured on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration website: (1274)
Sustainable House Day - The Australia and New Zealand Solar Energy Society (ANZES)
Sustainable House Day, celebrated during September, promotes the benefits of reducing energy, water and waste in homes across the country. Sustainable House Day offers the public an opportunity to visit sustainable housing, talk to the homeowners, architects, builders and designers. Open house locations can be found on this website. (1093)
Sydney Coastal Councils Group E-Library (NSW) - Sydney Coastal Councils Group
The Sydney Coastal Councils Group Inc. (SCCG) was established in 1989 to promote co-ordination between Member Councils on environmental issues relating to the sustainable management of the urban coastal environment. The Group consists of 15 Councils adjacent to Sydney marine and estuarine environments and associated waterways, and represents over 1.4 million Sydneysiders. This e-Library includes resources related to their region including materials on coastal adaptation to climate change. (1378)
System Approach to Regional Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Metropolises - Sydney Coastal Councils Group
The Systems Approach to Regional Climate Change Adaptation Strategies in Metropolises project developed and tested an integrated, systems approach to assisting the 15 Sydney Coastal Councils Group Member Councils in assessing their vulnerability to climate change and the barriers and opportunities associated with adaptation at the Local Government Scale. The project also sought to demonstrate the value of coordinated regional-scale responses to climate vulnerability through Local Government cooperation. Reports of the project are available from this web page. (1168)
Taking Action for Victoria's Future - Victorian Government
Taking Action for Victoria's Future: The Victorian Climate Change Action Plan sets out the Victorian Government’s commitment to strong action on climate change mitigation and adaptation. The Action Plan is a 10 year strategy to tackle climate change. (1246)
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Tasmanian Climate Change and Coastal Risk Assessment Project - Tasmanian Government Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Coastal Branch
This Project developed tools and resources to assist with risk-based management and planning for various assets and values in the coastal zone. The first two of three phases of the Project developed information on extreme sea-level probabilities for current and future sea-levels and carried out a desk-top audit of vulnerable assets and values around the Tasmanian coast. A Template Coastal Risk Management Plan, with supporting Guidelines, has been produced for use by local planners and managers to assist in managing risks to assets in the coastal zone vulnerable to sea-level rise. In addition a Case Study has been developed to provide a working example of how to use the Template. (1248)
Tasmanian Coastal Adaptation Decision Pathways Project - Tasmanian Government Department of Premier and Cabinet
The Tasmanian Coastal Adaptation Decision Pathways (TCAP) project aims to improve the ability of Tasmanian communities to adapt to climate change. The project explores realistic options for communities to respond to localised effects of climate change, and then to plan and respond appropriately. The webpage provides links to four local councils trialling this approach. Working with four local councils, the TCAP project team will follow a flexible planning pathway that will involve participation from a range of stakeholders, including residents and other users of the study areas. The experiences and learning gained from using this method in the four councils as they progress along the planning pathway can then be used by communities and councils across Tasmania and nationally. (1250)
Tasmanian Coastal Works Manual: A Best Practice Management Guide for Changing Coastlines - Page, L. and Thorp, V.
The Tasmanian Coastal Works Manual provides best practice guidelines for many small-scale works in coastal areas. It is designed for local government, other land managers and contractors who undertake coastal works. Chapter 2 of the Manual deals directly with climate change and the coast. The Manual aims to increase knowledge and awareness on a wide range of coastal land management issues (including climate change) to ensure that future work undertaken on fragile coastal areas will have minimal impact on environmental values. Chapter 3 of the Manual addresses coastal hazards noting that climate change and SLR will exacerbate the risk of coastal hazards. The Manual adopts a precautionary approach to climate change and SLR and suggests that coastal managers should plan for the upper levels of predicted changes. (1255)
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Tasmanian Framework for Action on Climate Change - Tasmanian Government
The Tasmanian Framework for Action on Climate Change sets out a general framework for how to address climate change in Tasmania, and includes both mitigation and adaptation measures. In the context of planning for future change, it specifies a number of key actions and timelines, including extending the Climate Futures for Tasmania Project (which aims to describe the most likely future climate scenarios in Tasmania through computer modeling) to cover infrastructure, and incorporates climate change considerations into Regional Planning Initiatives for three regions of the State. The vulnerability of the coastline to climate change is addressed. (1312)
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Tasmanian Planning Commission - Tasmanian Government
'In the early 1990's the Tasmanian government developed a set of objectives for resource management and planning. These objectives are included as a Schedule to each of the Acts that form part of the integrated system. There are a number of provisions within these Acts requiring that specific functions must 'seek to further the objectives of the Resource Management and Planning System'. The principal Acts forming the RMPS, in which the Commission has a major role, are the Land Use Planning and Approvals Act 1993, State Policies and Projects Act 1993 and the Tasmanian Planning Commission Act 1997. The overarching framework for planning in Tasmania is the Resource Management and Planning System (RMPS). It consists of a set of key objectives which are contained as Schedules in the three principal planning Acts: the Land Use Planning Act 1993 (Tas) (LUPA Act), the SPP Act and the Tasmanian Planning Commission Act 1997 (Tas). The RMPS objectives are: (a) to promote the sustainable development of natural and physical resources and the maintenance of ecological processes and genetic diversity; (b) provide for the fair, orderly and sustainable use and development of air, land and water; (c) encourage public involvement in resource management and planning; (d) facilitate economic development in accordance with the objectives set out above; and (e) promote the sharing of responsibility for resource management and planning between the different spheres of Government, the community and industry in the State. (1311)
Tasmanian State Coastal Policy (1996) - Tasmanian Planning Commission
The Tasmanian State Coastal Policy is made under the State Policies and Projects Act 1993. These policies represent the Government's overarching position on sustainable development and seek to implement the main objectives of Tasmania's Resource Management and Planning System. The current Coastal Policy applies to all of Tasmania, except for Macquarie Island. It comprises 85 outcomes, two of which relate directly to coastal hazards associated with SLR and climate change: 1.4.1 Areas subject to significant risk from natural coastal processes and hazards such as flooding, storms, erosion, landslip, littoral drift, dune mobility and SLR will be identified and managed to minimise the need for engineering or remediation works to protect land, property and human life. 1.4.3 Policies will be developed to respond to the potential effects of climate change (including sea-level rise) on use and development in the coastal zone. (1247)
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Tasmanian State Coastal Policy 1996 - Tasmanian Government
A review into the Coastal Policy commenced in 2004 with the aim of improving planning and management on the coast and providing planning tools to assist with interpretation and implementation. As a result a Draft State Coastal Policy 2008 was developed (Draft Policy). In 2009, the former Premier, the Honourable David Bartlett, MP, directed the Tasmanian Planning Commission to prepare a report on the Draft Policy and associated implementation guide. The Commission exhibited the Draft Policy and received submissions. The Commission found wide-spread support for a Coastal Policy. However, due to deficiencies in the Draft Policy (including lack of addressing coastal climate change issues) the Commission recommended against making the Draft Policy a Tasmanian Sustainable Development Policy. The Premier publicly accepted the Commission's recommendation in May 2011. (1310)
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Tasmanian Template and Guidelines: Coastal Risk Management Plan - Tasmanian Government Department of Primary Industries and Water
The Coastal Risk Management Plan Template and Guidelines have been developed for use by local planners and managers to assist in managing risks to assets in the coastal zone. They are designed to help manage the coastal risk to specific assets or discrete local areas where a number of assets are located together. The Guidelines target hazards associated with coastal flooding and erosion, especially where they are exacerbated due to the impacts of climate change and SLR. A Case Study Coastal Risk Management Plan has also been produced to provide a working example of the Template. (1249)
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Thames Estuary 2100 Plan (UK) - UK Environment Agency
London and the Thames are highly vulnerable to climate change. The Thames Estuary 2100 project developed a strategic plan for managing flood risk over the next 100 years. The project has identified packages of adaptation measures that can be implemented over time, to meet various scenarios of extreme water levels. Thresholds for decisions have been identified that are flexible and effectively manage risk. (1408)
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The 30-Year Plan for Greater Adelaide - Department of Planning and Local Government
The 30-Year Plan for Greater Adelaide has been prepared as a volume of the South Australian Planning Strategy in accordance with section 22 of the Development Act 1993. The Plan outlines how the South Australian Government proposes to respond to population growth and demographic change in Greater Adelaide during the next 30 years. It also sets out how the State Government proposes to continue to drive economic growth so that the people of Greater Adelaide and all South Australians can benefit from carefully managed and balanced population growth, increased productivity and strong economic performance. The Plan sets out a range of policies (both strategic and land use) and targets that will accommodate this population and economic growth, while at the same time preserving the heritage, history and character of the city; preserving the regional hinterland; protecting and enhancing the natural environment; and responding to the risks and potential impacts of climate change. The 30-Year Plan for Greater Adelaide provides important policy measures to ensure an effective long-term approach to dealing with the impacts of climate change particularly in relation to the urban form, including energy efficient building design, a reduction in the vulnerability of critical infrastructure and continued protection of coastal development from seawater inundation. (1305)
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The Estimated Cost of Tropical Cyclone Impacts in Western Australia: A Technical Report for the Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI) Stage 3 - McBride, J.L.
This report addresses the economic impact of tropical cyclones in Western Australia. It is proposed that the major economic impact of tropical cyclones to WA is likely to be the cost to the mining sector in conducting business in a cyclone-prone area rather than the direct cost of damage. This report stems from the third stage (2008-2012) of the Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI), a joint climate change research project between the WA Government, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and the CSIRO. (1433)
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The Impacts and Management Implications of Climate Change for the Australian Government - Hyder Consulting
The Australian Government commissioned Hyder Consulting to assess the impacts and management implications of climate change for the Australian Government’s protected areas. The report outlines the likely impacts of climate change on protected areas and the consequences of these impacts for the management of protected areas. The report examined twenty protected areas managed by the former Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, and declared under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). It includes 13 marine protected areas. (1050)
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The Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI) - Western Australian Government, CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology
The Indian Ocean Climate Intiative (IOCI) is a climate change research program established by the Western Australian Government in partnership with CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology. The IOCI research supports the WA Government’s decision-making for climate change adaptation. The website provides an overview of the IOCI’s activities and research results. (1008)
The Lake Macquarie Council Adaptation Action - NCCARF
NCCARF presents a number of case examples of climate change adaptation in action. This case study explores the actions undertaken by Lake Macquarie City Council, on the coast of NSW. This Council has recently been identified by the National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) as an adaptation champion. Actions undertaken by Council include engaging and empowering communities vulnerable to sea level rise, policy and planning, knowledge creation and information dissemination. (1364)
The Local Adaptation Pathways Program - Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency
Through the Local Adaptation Pathways Program, the Australian Government is providing funding to help councils undertake climate change risk assessments and develop action plans to prepare for the localised impacts of climate change. (1094)
The State of Marine and Coastal Adaptation in North America: A Synthesis of Emerging Ideas - Gregg, R., Hansen, L., Feifel, K., Hitt, J., Score, A., Kershner, J. and Hoffman, J.
The intent of this report is to provide a brief overview of key climate change impacts on the natural and built environments in marine and coastal North America and a review of adaptation options available to and in use by marine and coastal managers. This report presents the results of EcoAdapt’s efforts to survey, inventory, and assess adaptation projects from different regions, jurisdictions, and scales throughout North America’s marine and coastal environments. (1325)
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The Strategic Waste Initiatives Scheme (SWIS) - Western Australian Government Waste Authority
The Strategic Waste Initiative Scheme (SWIS) provides funding and other forms of assistance for projects that are in line with the former Waste Management Board's Statement of Strategic Direction for Waste Management in Western Australia. There is no cap on funding; funding requests should be in line with the scope of the project to be undertaken. SWIS is administered through the Western Australian Government’s Waste Authority. (1115)
Town of Cottesloe Local Adaptation Action Plan 2011-2016 - Town of Cottesloe
Cottesloe faces the prospect of increased coastal erosion from climate change. The Town of Cottesloe prepared a Local Adaptation Action Plan in 2011 that sets out key risks and adaptation options, priorities and timelines to manage and adapt to the localised impacts from human enhanced climate change. (1187)
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UK Climate Change Act (2008) - UK Government
The UK is the first country in the world to have introduced a legally binding framework to tackle climate change and its potential impacts. The Climate Change Act 2008 provides the legal framework to ensure the UK government meets its commitments in terms of both reducing greenhouse emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change. The act requires the government to implement a National Adaptation Programme. This will be informed by an assessment of the risks posed to the UK by the climate up to the year 2100. (1339)
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UK Climate Change Risk Assessment -
This report outlines the UK Government’s views on the main issues raised in the Climate Change Risk Assessment (CCRA) Evidence Report (an independent analysis funded by UK Government and Devolved Governments), to highlight actions already in place to manage the risks identified in the CCRA, and to outline UK Government plans for the future.  Floods and coastal erosion are addressed specifically. (1340)
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UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) - UKCIP
UKCIP assists organisations to adapt to the impacts of climate change. UKCIP works at the boundary between scientific research, policy making and adaptation practice. The website provides a portfolio of tools for climate change adaptation and case studies, a number of which are on coastal climate change adaptation. (1034)
UK Coastal Change Pathfinder Programme Review - UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
There are 15 Coastal Change Pathfinder authorities who are exploring new ways of adapting to coastal change. The pathfinders received nearly £11 million from the coastal change fund announced in June 2009. Working in partnership with their communities, the pathfinders are road-testing new and innovative approaches to planning for and managing change.  Through this work, the pathfinder programme is: improving understanding of how coastal communities can adapt to coastal change and what the costs and benefits of different approaches are; providing practical lessons and examples able to be shared with other practitioners, particularly on community adaptation planning and engagement and delivery of adaptive solutions. The pathfinder programme began in December 2009. All of the pathfinder authorities have been interviewed, in order to capture lessons learned, and a Review report (2012) has been completed. (1332)
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UK Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 - UK Government
The Marine and Coastal Access Act creates a new, comprehensive management system for U.K. coasts and seas. The UK Government recognises the vulnerability of our seas and coast to the increasing impacts of climate change, coastal erosion and habitat loss; the Marine and Coastal Access Act provides new environmental safeguards and an integrated approach to planning, regulation and biodiversity across land and sea. (1334)
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UK National Planning Policy Framework - UK Government Department for Communities and Local Government
The National Policy Planning Framework includes policy on managing climate change, flooding and coastal change. The Framework replaces Planning Policy Statements 25: Development and Flood Risk. Local Plans should take account of climate change over the longer term, including factors such as flood risk, coastal change, water supply and changes to biodiversity and landscape. New development should be planned to avoid increased vulnerability to the range of impacts arising from climate change. When new development is brought forward in areas which are vulnerable, care should be taken to ensure that risks can be managed through suitable adaptation measures, including through the planning of green infrastructure. 100. Inappropriate development in areas at risk of flooding should be avoided by directing development away from areas at highest risk, but where development is necessary, making it safe without increasing flood risk elsewhere.19 Local Plans should be supported by Strategic Flood Risk Assessment and develop policies to manage flood risk from all sources, taking account of advice from the Environment Agency and other relevant flood risk management bodies, such as lead local flood authorities and internal drainage boards. Local Plans should apply a sequential, risk-based approach to the location of development to avoid where possible flood risk to people and property and manage any residual risk. (1330)
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United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - United Nations
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) came into force on 21 March, 1994. The Convention provides an overall framework for intergovernmental action to address climate change. Reference is made to adaptation in Article 2 and Article 4 (4.1 (b,e,f), 4.8 and 4.9). (1030)
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US National Flood and Insurance Program - FEMA
Many US coastal communities participate in the the National Flood Insurance Program that requires the adoption and enforcement of minimum floodplain management regulations (e.g. building standards) to reduce flood loss damage. This site provides flood mapping and information about flood risk, costs and insurance. (1271)
Variability and Trends in the Australian Wave Climate and Consequent Coastal Vulnerability - Hemer, M.A., McInnes, K., Church, J. A., O
This report describes Australia’s ocean wave climate and projected changes to surface ocean wave energy felt on Australia’s coasts as a result of climate change. The report also discusses the potential impacts of changing ocean waves in the coastal zone including greater coastal inundation from severe storm events and chronic coastal erosion. (1048)
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Victorian Climate Change Act 2010 - Victorian Government
The purpose of the Climate Change Act 2010 is to establish a target to reduce GHG emissions, to facilitate the consideration of climate change issues in specified areas of decision making of the Victorian Government and to provide for a strategic response by the Victorian Government to climate change through a Climate Change Adaptation Plan, amongst other things. It does not specifically deal with coastal climate change risks. (1290)
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Victorian Climate Change Adaptation Plan - Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment, and Victorian Government Department of Planning and Community Development
The plan outlines actions being taken to manage risks and build climate resilience across essential public infrastructure and services. The plan also recognises that managing risks to Victoria’s natural assets, including the coastline, and natural resource-based industries is vital for the wellbeing of our communities and the health of our economy. One section is dedicated to sea level rise and coastal inundation. (1275)
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Victorian Coastal Management Act 1995 - Victorian Government
The Coastal Management Act provides for the coordinated strategic planning and management of the Victorian coast. The CM Act establishes the Victorian Coastal Council whose key role is to develop and coordinate implementation of the Victorian Coastal Strategy. The Strategy is a state-wide strategy that implements specific climate change policies and action for the coastal area. The Act also establishes the three Regional Coastal Boards (Western, Central and Gippsland) whose role it is to develop Coastal Action Plans in their respective regions. Coastal Action Plans are the primary tool for the planning and management of significant coastal, estuarine and marine areas or issues. The CM Act also provides for the development of management plans for coastal Crown land and a coordinated approach to approvals for the use and development of coastal Crown land. (1289)
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Victorian Coastal Strategy - Victorian Coastal Council
The Victorian Coastal Strategy (VCS) requires climate change adaptation to be specifically considered in the process for developing coastal land. The VCS recognises that 'the combined effects of SLR, the impact of tides, storm surges, wave processes and local conditions such as topography, elevation and geology will produce climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas'. The policies and actions outlined in the VCS address the issue of climate change in part by setting a policy of planning for SLR of not less than 0.8 metres by 2100. It focuses on future coastal development and provides limited guidance on managing the risks of climate change to existing development. The VCS adopts a precautionary approach indicating that three adaptation options (protect, accommodate and retreat) together with emergency management must be considered for all vulnerable areas and that adaptation strategies should plan for likely future circumstances even if full scientific certainty is not possible. In addition, it states that 'Planning and management programs that can help vulnerable habitats to survive and improve the resilience of the coastal and marine environment are preferred'. The VCS also recognises the need for collaboration between national, state and local governments in developing 'consistent benchmarks for coastal vulnerability assessments to determine the likely impact of climate change on the community'. (1242)
Victorian Emergency Management Act 1986 - Victorian Government
The EM Act is administered by the Minister for Police and Emergency Services. The EM Act provides the powers and responsibilities for public authorities during an emergency such as fire, flood, storm, earthquake, explosion, terrorist act, accident, epidemic or warlike action which endangers or threatens to endanger the safety health of any person in the State or destroys or damages or threatens to destroy or damage property in the State. (1292)
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Victorian Future Coasts Program - Victorian Government Department of Sustainability and Environment, and Victorian Government Department of Planning and Community Development
Future Coasts is designed to address the risks posed to Victoria’s coasts from climate change by producing information about the impacts of sea level rise with a focus on coastal erosion and flooding. This information is designed for decision makers and coastal land managers for use in planning and managing coastal areas. Outputs of the project include digital elevation models and data. (1244)
Victorian Greenhouse Strategy Action Plan Update - The State of Victoria Department of Sustainability and Environment
The Victorian Greenhouse Strategy (2002) is a general climate change strategy that includes adaptation. It acknowledges that rises in sea level and tidal surges could severely impact on human and natural systems in coastal areas and need to be planned for. It indicates that the government will undertake vulnerability assessments in coastal locations. The Victorian Greenhouse Strategy Action Plan Update (2005) also recognises the need for adaptation action and the need to assess the vulnerability of infrastructure. Action items include 'reducing coastal vulnerability'. (1288)
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Victorian Planning and Environment Act 1987 - Victorian Government
In Victoria, land use planning is primarily governed by the Planning and Environment Act 1987. The purpose of this Act is to establish a framework for planning the use, development and protection of land in Victoria in the present and long-term interests of all Victorians. (1291)
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Victorian State Planning Policy Framework (Amendment VC71) - Victorian Government Department of Planning and Community Development
The Victorian State Planning Policy Framework requires that planning in coastal areas plans for and manages the potential impacts of climate change. Clause 13.01-1 of the State Planning Policy Framework is the provision relating to coastal areas. The current VCS is the 3rd edition and addresses, in particular, issues of climate change, population growth and a healthy marine environment. Its purpose is to set out the Victorian government (1243)
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Voluntary Contribution to Climate Change Fund (NSW) - Manly Council
This unique initiative is designed to allow residents greater involvement in assisting the Manly community to mitigate against and adapt to the impacts of climate change.A financial contribution can be made to a special ‘climate change fund’ that will be used to fund Council projects that will assist Manly to reduce its contribution to climate change and to assist the community to prepare for the likely impacts. This voluntary contribution can be made when paying Council rates. These include, for example:  Reducing Manly Council’s carbon footprint by 2010. Working with the community to help reduce their carbon emissions. Reducing energy consumption for street lighting. Use of renewable energies, such as solar power, for community facilities. Seawall protection and strengthening. Stormwater harvesting. Flood protection of low lying areas. (1389)
Vulnerability to Climate Change of Australia - Voice, M., Harvey, N. and Walsh, K.
This report identifies the extent of knowledge available for assessing the vulnerability of the Australian coastal zone to climate change and prioritises further research needs. The report discusses natural systems, coastal infrastructure, water resources, fisheries and aquaculture, and other coastal activities. This report was prepared for the Australian Government in 2006 as part of the National Climate Change Adaptation Programme (NCCAP). (1054)
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WA State Planning Framework Policy (Variation No. 2) - Western Australian Planning Commission
The State Planning Framework unites existing State and regional policies, strategies and guidelines within a central framework which provides a context for decision-making on land use and development in Western Australia. (1234)
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WAPC Position Statement - SPP2.6 Sea Level Rise - Western Australian Planning Commission
The WAPC Position Statement amends the sea level rise value and total setback allowance in State Planning Policy No. 2.6 State Coastal Planning Policy Schedule for use in coastal planning for new development in line with increases in sea level rise projections. (1228)
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Western Australian Climate Change Unit - Western Australian Government Department of Environment and Conservation
The Climate Change Unit website provides information about the work of the Unit and climate change in WA. The Climate Change Unit is the Western Australian Government’s focal point for climate change policy and strategy. It develops and implements climate change mitigation and adaptation policies and programs and coordinates the Indian Ocean Climate Initiative (IOCI). (1007)
Western Australian Coastal Compartments Mapping Project 2008/2009 - Nutt, C., Guzzard, B. and Eliot, I.
This project defines the principal coastal regions and compartments of the WA coast. Further, it makes a preliminary assessment and exploration of the applications of these compartments to coastal and marine planning, management and conservation. This project was initiated by the Department of Environment and Conservation and the Geological Survey of WA, and now jointly undertaken with Department of Planning and Department of Transport. (1230)
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Western Australian Development Control Policy 6.1 Country Coastal Planning Policy - Western Australian Government Department of Planning
The Development Control Policy 6.1 Country Coastal Planning Policy provides a uniform approach to land use planning, development and subdivision of coastal areas of Western Australia outside of the Perth metropolitan region. It is designed to assist local government, developers and planning consultants by providing a set of general guidelines. The policy is intended primarily to deal with new development and subdivision and may not always be applicable to areas previously developed and subdivided. The policy outlines a series of general principles including: development should be concentrated in nodes; preferably at existing settlements; development should be separated from the coast by a foreshore reserve; and development such as marinas and residential canal estates should be considered as special cases which require specific and detailed studies. The policy states that permanent development and subdivisions should be set back from the coast because, amongst other reasons, of susceptibility of coastal landforms to wind, wave and water erosion. The policy specifies criteria for determining setbacks on sandy coasts, rocky coasts and in estuarine areas. On sandy coasts, the policy states that a setback of 100 metres should be regarded as a guideline where landforms are stable and that where the coast is receding, the reserve should comprise a recession component in addition to the basic setback. The recession component is to be calculated using a 100 year planning timeframe (recession component = average net erosion rate x 100). (1297)
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Western Australian Greenhouse Strategy - Western Australian Government Department of Environment and Conservation
The Western Australian Greenhouse Strategy is a general climate change strategy that recognises the vulnerability of coastal areas and infrastructure, and the increased potential for storm surge. The Strategy recognises the need to develop adaptation strategies in coastal areas, and to undertake further research into the likely effects of flooding and erosion. It does not contain specific policies to address coastal CC or emergency management issues. (1019)
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Western Port Human Settlements Impacts and Adaptation Projects - Western Port Greenhouse Alliance
The Western Port Human Settlements Impacts and Adaptation Project (2006-2008) evolved from a WPGA initiated scoping study (2005-2006) that established the need for more regional information on potential climate change impacts as well as greater understanding of local decision-making processes in relation to climate change adaptation. The project focuses on the impacts of climate change on the built environment and communities, and local adaptation responses to impacts. The project aims to build local government knowledge and capacity to adapt to climate change as well as develop an approach to climate change assessment and adaptation that can be transferred to local governments in other Australian regions. The Councils involved include Bass Coast, Frankston, Cardinia, Mornington Peninsula and Casey Councils, located in the region to the immediate south-east of the Melbourne metropolitan area. (1180)
What Does Climate Change Mean to You, Your Country, Your Community, Sea and Country? (South Australia) - Eyre Peninsula Natural Resources Management Board, South Australian Government
This booklet provides information about the impacts of climate change on Aboriginal communities on Eyre Peninsula and provides actions that can be taken to reduce the impacts. (1321)
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Winter 2011 Storm Events - WRL Report - Water Research Laboratory, UNSW
This report details on-site observations of damage to Roches Beach and Cremorne, Clarence City, Tasmania, caused by winter storm events. The report makes a number of recommendations for addressing imminent and future hazards to property and infrastructure. (1254)
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Working on Country Program - Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities
Working on Country builds on Indigenous traditional knowledge to protect and manage land and sea country. According to the Government’s website, almost 700 Indigenous rangers across 85 ranger teams are employed across Australia that deliver environmental services including the management of fire regimes, biodiversity, feral animals, weeds, land disturbance, pollution and climate change impacts. (1102)
World Environment Day - United Nations Environment Programme
World Environment Day, celebrated on 5 June each year, aims to raise environmental awareness and political action worldwide. A range of community events are held, government statements delivered and environmental commitments made. (1092)
Yearly Data Reports - Australian Baseline Sea Level Monitoring Project - Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology
This web page makes available reports on sea level and related parameters at various locations around Australia as collected for the Australian Baseline Sea Level Monitoring Project. (1353)
Zero Waste Plan Development Scheme - Western Australian Government Waste Authority
The Zero Waste Plan Development Scheme assists local governments to develop a strategic waste management plan that is aligned with the State Government’s vision ‘Toward’s Zero Waste’. Phase 2, formulating Zero Waste Plans, is underway. Financial incentives are available for Phase 2. Councils working collaboratively receive greater incentives. The Zero Waste Plan Development Scheme, administered by the Western Australian Waste Authority, was developed by the former Waste Management Board, the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) and the Western Australian Local Government Association (WALGA). (1116)